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Criminal Justice Resources :


Related web pages:

  • Agro-Security
  • Bioterrorism (Including Biological and Chemical Threats),
  • Bomb Threats and Radiological Incidents,
  • Emergency Management,
  • Terrorism Groups and Related Issues,
  • Transportation Security,
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction.
  • Agricultural Bioterrorism: A Federal Strategy to Meet the Threat
    This paper reviews the nature and threat of agricultural bioterrorism, examines present national capabilities and plans to meet the threat, and proposes a USDA-led federal strategy, including partnerships with key public and private organizations, that could strengthen American ability to prevent, respond to, and remediate biological attacks against national food and agriculture infrastructures. National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, March 2002.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Agricultural Biowarfare & Bioterrorism:
    An Analytical Framework & Recommendations for the Fifth BTWC Review Conference
    Mark Wheelis. First presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Politics and the Life Sciences in Atlanta, Georgia, September 1999; Expanded version presented as a working paper at the 14th Workshop of the Pugwash Study Group on the Implementation of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Conventions, Geneva, Switzerland, November 2000. Last update: November, 2000.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Agricultural Security and Emergency Preparedness:
    Protecting One of America's Critical Infrastructures
    The threat of biological weapons and potential for terrorists to disrupt economies and societies by introducing pathogens into the food supply and livestock is now being taken seriously by government agencies. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has in place an overall biosecurity system designed to prevent the harmful introduction of plant and animal pathogens into America's system of agriculture and food production. Biosecurity and biocontainment are words describing programs for infectious disease control that (1) reduce/prevent the introduction of new diseases onto an operation from outside sources and (2) reduce/prevent the movement of infectious diseases on the operation. Since September 11, all USDA inspectors have been placed on heightened alert at ports of entry and in meat and poultry slaughter and processing plants, and security has been increased at appropriate USDA facilities. Stephen M. Apatow, President, Humanitarian Research Institute. December 2001. 15pp.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Agricultural Security: Veterinary and Scientific Experts Outline Priority Issues
    Agriculture represents one of America’s critical infrastructures that require a domestic preparedness program to protect an industry worth hundreds of billions of dollars that directly or indirectly employs millions of people. Though significant progress has been made since the September 11 attacks, concerns remain regarding the deliberate introduction of a Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) in multiple locations and/or with multiple pathogens that could potentially overwhelm an emergency response system. In the context of this assessment, it is crucial that solid contingency plans are established that encompass the capacity to handle any threat against the U.S. food and agricultural system. Jan. 16, 2002.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Agroterrorism Resources
    A compilation of resources by the Texas Department of State Health Services.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness
    This report explores agriculture as a terrorist target, which is increasingly recognized as a national security threat. According to the author, "agroterrorism is a subset of bioterrorism, and is defined as the deliberate introduction of an animal or plant disease with the goal of generating fear, causing economic losses, and/or undermining stability." A Congressional Research Service publication, August 13, 2004, saved by the Federation of American Scientists. 49pp.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Agroterrorism: What Is the Threat and What Can be Done About It?
    With the assumption that relatively little consideration has been given to terrorist threats against agriculture and food industries as a backdrop, this Research Brief from RAND examines key weaknesses inherent in the agricultural sector and the food chain, assesses the capabilities needed to exploit those vulnerabilities, and discusses potential ways to improve agricultural emergency response and management. RAND, National Defense Research Institute, 2003, 2pp.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Agroterrorism : Why We're Not Ready: A Look at the Role of Law Enforcement
    An agroterrorism attack could dramatically impact many aspects of American life, including law enforcement, which—especially in rural areas—is financially and strategically unprepared to respond. This publication looks at the impact that the introduction of foot-and-mouth disease would have on the United States, including the slaughter of millions of animals and an impact to the U.S. economy of up to $60 billion. The publication outlines why law enforcement is not currently ready for such a terrorist attack and gives procedures for preparing for and responding to agroterrorism. December 2006.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    American Veterinary Medical Association
    Disaster Preparedness Page
    Veterinary Medical Assistance Teams
    Sponsor training for Veterinary Medical Assistance Teams (VMAT) which could respond to the needs of animals during a disaster.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and Department of Homeland Security:
    Emergency Preparedness and Response
    APHIS’ mission is to protect the health and value of U.S. agricultural, natural and other resources. To fulfill this mission, APHIS has created an Emergency Management Leadership Council, along with the Emergency Management and Homeland Security Branch and the Emergency Preparedness Branch.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Biosafety Web Sites for Agriculture and Food Supplies
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Biosecurity and On-Farm Food Safety
    Courtesy of Penn State University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Vet Extension.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Bioterrorism: A Threat to Agriculture and Food Supply
    Examines gaps in federal controls for protecting agriculture and the food supply.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Bioterrorism: Agricultural Shock
    Fears about terrorism usually centre on nuclear or biological weapons. But attackers could cause huge economic damage by spreading plant or animal diseases. Virginia Gewin asks how this threat is being confronted. Article by Virginia Gewin appearing in Nature 421, 106 - 108 (2003); doi:10.1038/421106a.
    To retrieve article, paste in doi number in the search box.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Countering Agricultural Bioterrorism
    Committee on Biological Threats to Agricultural Plants and Animals, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Radioactive Waste Management, National Research Council, 2002. 194 pages.
    The United States is vulnerable to agricultural bioterrorism and needs a comprehensive plan to defend against it, says a new report from the National Academies' National Research Council. The United States cannot rapidly detect and identify many pests and pathogens and could not quickly respond to a large-scale attack, which would overwhelm existing laboratory and field resources. Available in paper copy in the MSU Library: UG447.8 .N37 2003
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    CVM and Counterterrorism
    The Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) is working with other federal agencies to help the country prepare for a biological emergency, natural disaster or terrorist attack by making sure there is a safe and adequate supply of animal drug products and a safe animal feed supply system. This page contains information on CVM’s role in counter-terrorism.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Food and Agricultural Security :
    Guarding Against Natural Threats and Terrorist Attacks
    Affecting Health, National Food Supplies, and Agricultural Economics
    Thomas W. Frazier and Drew C. Richardson, editors. New York : New York Academy of Sciences, 1999. 233pp. Main Library Stacks Q11 .N5 v.894 v.894
    Addresses issues concerning the possibility of bioterrorism against agricultural crops and domestic animals. A unique feature of the book is an industry-government dialogue concerning defense of these vulnerable resources. Presents papers at a conference entitled International Conference on Food and Agricultural Security held by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, FBI Scientific Laboratory, the DoD Veterinary Service Activity, the American Veterinary Medical Association, the Louisiana State University, and the National Consortium for Genomic Resources Management.

    Food Defense and Emergency Response
    Learn how to protect your family in the event of either a natural disaster or an intentional attack. Understand what the Department of Agriculture is doing to keep the public food supply safe. USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Food Safety and Food Security : What Consumers Should Know
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Food Security Guidelines
    If the way to a man's heart is through his stomach, then the way to the U.S. heartland is through the food supply. Specifically, an attack on the nation's agriculture could be an effective way for terrorists to sow fear and economic disruption, as U.S. government officials have frequently acknowledged in the last two years. Thanks to two federal agencies, farmers, food processors, distributors, and others involved in the agricultural food chain have some new security resources to chew on.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Got Toxic Milk? : A Rejoinder
    Recently, the New York Times published an opinion piece on May 30, 2005 that served as a bioterrorism threat assessment. Entitled "Got Toxic Milk" and written by Stanford University professor Lawrence M. Wein, it made the claim that a single terrorist could contaminate the milk supply with a lethal toxin by following the instructions in a jihadi manual available on the Internet. The opinion described large numbers of casualties, was inflammatory and, we think, flawed in its understanding of terrorist capabilities. It was based upon a paper entitled "Analyzing a Bioterror Attack on the Food Supply: The Case of Botulinum Toxin in Milk" which was accepted for publication in the scientific journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The paper was distributed to journalists, including those at CNN, who reported that it had provoked a protest from the US Department of Health and Human Services. HHS claimed that the paper gave terrorists a roadmap for their operations and that it should not be published. Milton Leitenberg and George Smith, made available by the Federation of Toxic Scientists.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Hitting America's Soft Underbelly:
    The Potential Threat of Deliberate Biological Attacks Against the U.S. Agricultural and Food Industry
    This study assesses how vulnerable the agricultural sector and the food chain are to a deliberate act of biological terrorism, explores possible outcomes of a successful attack, and outlines the agricultural industry's importance to the U.S. economy. Peter Chalk, RAND, National Defense Research Institute, 2004. 65pp.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Humanitarian Resource Institute
    Biodefense Reference Library
    Resources for Strategic Planning & Project Development. The Biodefense Reference Library is a collaborative initiative of international medical, veterinary and scientific experts to share information and enhance academic discussion of issues associated with preparedness, response, mitigation and policy. This information resource was developed and is maintained by Stephen M. Apatow, Director of Research and Development (vitae), who is a specialist in strategic planning and project development of initiatives associated with human medicine, veterinary medicine and U.S. and international law.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Keeping Food Safe During An Emergency
    Did you know that a flood, fire, national disaster, or the loss of power from high winds, snow, or ice could jeopardize the safety of your food? Knowing how to determine if food is safe and how to keep food safe will help minimize the potential loss of food and reduce the risk of foodborne illness. This fact sheet will help you make the right decisions for keeping your family safe during an emergency.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Making the Nation Safer:
    The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism (2002)
    See Chapter 3, Human and Agricultural Systems. The National Academies Press.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Mitigating a U.S. or International Agricultural Incident
    Producers and producer organizations overlooked in contingency planning discussions on biosecurity. Humanitarian Resource Institute, November 6, 2003.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    National Biosecurity Resource Center for Animal Health Emergencies
    In an effort to centralize distribution of protocols for animal health biosecurity, Purdue University has launched the nation’s first Web-based National Biosecurity Resource Center for Animal Health Emergencies. The web site provides the full text of Biosecurity Guide for Pork Producers and Security Guide for Pork Producers.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    The Office of Science and Technology Policy Blue Ribbon Panel
    on the Threat of Biological Terrorism Directed Against Livestock
    The Office of Science and Technology, in conjunction with the RAND Corporation, convened a panel in 2003 to organize a future research and development agenda for combating biological acts of agro-terrorism directed against U.S. livestock and related produce. This report contains the papers submitted for the conference and provides an overview of the findings and recommendations of the forum. Terrence K. Kelly et al., RAND Corporation, April 2004. 192pp.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Overview of Agricultural Biosecurity
    This paper discusses the biosecurity threat faced by the United States' agricultural resources. It includes information on the agricultural biosecurity threat, potential perpetrators, and potential crop pathogens. Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy, January 27, 2003.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Planting Fear: How Real is the Threat of Agricultural Terrorism?
    No longer available on the web, but available to MSU faculty and students via Library subscriptions.
    Gavin Cameron, Jason Pate and Kathleen Vogel, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, (vol. 57, no. 05) September/October 2001 pp. 38-44.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Safety and Security Guidelines for the Transportation and Distribution of Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Security Guidelines for Food Processors
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Terrorist Threats to Food:
    Guidance for Establishing and Strengthening Prevention Response Systems
    World Health Organization, Food Safety Department, 2002. 50pp.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    Terrorist Threats to Food
    Guidelines for Establishing and Strengthening Prevention and Response Systems
    The malicious contamination of food for terrorist purposes is a real and current threat, and deliberate contamination of food at one location could have global public health implications. This document responds to increasing concern in Member States that chemical, biological or radionuclear agents might be used deliberately to harm civilian populations and that food might be a vehicle for disseminating such agents. The Fifty-fifth World Health Assembly (May 2002) also expressed serious concern about such threats and requested the Organization to provide tools and support to Member States to increase the capacity of national health systems to respond. Courtesy of the World Health Organization, 2002.
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    USDA Homeland Security page
    (Last checked 04/23/14)

    A Water Security Handbook : Planning For and Responding to Drinking Water Contamination Threats and Incidents
    [Washington, D.C.] : United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, [2006] 72pp. EP 2.8:W 29/11 Online Document
    To determine whether EPA has revised this guide or to obtain additional copies, contact the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 or visit the EPA’s Water Security website at To determine whether EPA has revised this guide or to obtain additional copies, contact the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 or visit the EPA’s Water Security website.


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