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Criminal Justice Resources :

Bioterrorism (Covering Both Biological and Chemical Threats)

Related web pages:

  • Agro-Security
  • Biotterorism (Including Biological and Chemical Threats),
  • Bombs and Radiological Incidents,
  • Emergency Management,
  • Terrorism Groups and Related Issues,
  • Transportation Security,
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction.

  • "Bioterrorism is a real threat to our country. It's a threat to every nation that loves freedom. Terrorist groups seek biological weapons; we know some rogue states already have them....It's important that we confront these real threats to our country and prepare for future emergencies.: President George W. Bush, June 12, 2002. Source: Biodefense for the 21st Century listed below.

    "Armed with a single vial of a biological agent...small groups of fanatics, or failing states, could gain the power to threaten great nations, threaten the world peace. America, and the entire civilized world, will face this threat for decades to come. We must confront the danger with open eyes, and unbending purpose." President George W. Bush, Feb. 11, 2004. Source: Biodefense for the 21st Century listed below.

    "'If terrorists were to look for a shortcut to mayhem,' suggests Amy Smithson, a researcher at the Henry L. Stimson Center in Washington, they need look no further than the 850,000 chemical plants in the United States that contain hazardous materials ... .But doomsday scenarios, in which millions of people die from smallpox or bubonic plague, seem far-fetched, say most experts. For a start, `acquiring and using chemical and biological weapons in a manner that causes mass casualties is not shake'n'bake easy' as Dr. Smithson puts it in her recent book Ataxia: The Chemical and Biological Terrorist Threat and the U.S. Response. That, she says, helps explain why there have been only 16 incidents worldwide of terrorists causing five or more injuries with chemical or biological weapons since 1975, among the more than 9,000 terrorist attacks monitored by the State Department." Source: Biochem Terror : A Reality Check, The Christian Science Monitor v.93 no.219 (5 Oct 2001): p.1,9

    AAP: The Youngest Victims: Disaster Preparedness to Meet Children's Needs
    A Report from the American Academy of Pediatrics on meeting the treatment and mental health needs of children.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Advice for Safeguarding Buildings Against Chemical or Biological Attack
    Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Also listed under Emergency Management.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Unveils Hospital Bioterrorism Preparedness Tool
    "Hospitals are on the front line for any bioterrorism attack. This tool will help hospitals plan to meet and anticipate needs imposed by a biological incident," said AHRQ's acting director, Carolyn M. Clancy, M.D. The 42 questions in AHRQ's Bioterrorism Emergency Planning and Preparedness Questionnaire for Healthcare Facilities cover subjects such as biological weapons training for their personnel, procedures to permit rapid recognition of credentialed staff from other facilities, on-call nursing policies, and designated areas of emergency overflow for patients. The survey also asks hospitals about matters such as their supply of selected antibiotics and the diagnostic capability of their in-hospital laboratory.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Agricultural Biowarfare and Bioterrorism
    A compilation by Mark Wheelis, Section of Microbiology, University of California, Davis posted by the Federation of American Scientists, Chemical and Biological Arms Control Program.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    American College of Physicians/American Society of Internal Medicine
    Bioterrorism and Disaster Preparedness Resources
    These pages provide information vital to all practicing physicians. Among the resources are Medical Aspects of Biological Terrorism, a clinical case and commentary from the Center for Biodefense Studies and Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine and Public Health.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Amerithrax: FBI Major Investigation
    The FBI is appealing to the public for information that might help in its Amerithrax investigation. You can e-mail an investigator or read up on the latest developments in this unprecedented bioterror probe. Source: USA Today Hot Site, Dec. 12, 2001.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Anthrax As a Biological Weapon
    Of the numerous biological agents that may be used as weapons, the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has identified a limited number of organisms that could cause disease and deaths in sufficient numbers to cripple a city or region. Anthrax is one of the most serious of these diseases.
    High hopes were once vested in the Biological Weapons and Toxins Convention, which prohibited offensive biological weapons research or production and was signed by most countries. However, Iraq and the former Soviet Union, both signatories of the convention, have subsequently acknowledged having offensive biowarfare programs; a number of other countries are believed to have such programs, as have some autonomous terrorist groups. The possibility of a terrorist attack using bioweapons would be especially difficult to predict, detect, or prevent, and thus, it is among the most feared terrorist scenarios.
    Biological agents have seldom been dispersed in aerosol form, the exposure mode most likely to inflict widespread disease. Therefore, historical experience provides little information about the potential impact of a biological attack or the possible efficacy of postattack measures such as vaccination, antibiotic therapy, or quarantine. Policies and strategies must therefore rely on interpretation and extrapolation from an incomplete knowledge base. The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense reviewed the available literature and expertise and developed consensus recommendations for medical and public health measures to be taken following such an attack.
    Source: May 12, 1999 issue of JAMA.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Anthrax Attacks, Biological Terrorism, and Preventive Responses
    This report presents testimony before the Senate Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information on the use of anthrax as a biological terror attack via the U.S. mail, including specific discussion of the threat of bioterrorism and preventive measures to diminish the proliferation of biological agents to states and terrorists. RAND, November 2001
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Anthrax Discovery Guide
    A compilation of information by Roberta Gardner, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Nov. 2001.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Anthrax Vaccine Home Page
    Dr. Meryl Nass presents information on the anthrax vaccine. Nass includes her written testimony to the House Committee on Government Reform concerning the medical response to bioterrorism and an article on the link of the anthrax vaccine to the Gulf War Syndrome. Nass provides access to other recent articles on the anthrax vaccine.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program
    The official DOD website for the anthrax vaccine immuization progran run by BioPort in Lansing, Michigan. Includes information about the threat, the disease, and the vaccine, plus lots of references to research articles, many of which have online links.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biodefense: A Need for Public Understanding and the Critical Role of Science Teachers
    In the light of the recent concerns over the threat and possibility of bioterrorism, the Office of Science Education at the National Institutes of Health has recently released this informative pamphlet (originally published in fall 2002) for teachers hoping to broaden the topic in the classroom. The publication itself gives teacher an opportunity to discuss how public health decisions are made, explain the role of vaccination in public health, and how to effectively address student concerns about bioterrorist attacks. Many of the pieces in the pamphlet were written by Robert Taylor, a science journalist and editor who taught high school chemistry before returning to take his PhD in chemistry from Georgetown University. Other pieces in the publication include an interview with Anthony Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infection Diseases and an extended piece about smallpox. Educators and the general public will find this 12-page publication informative, both in terms of providing substantive scientific information and in dispelling popular misconceptions about bioterrorism. Source: Scout Report, May 16, 2003.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biodefense and Bioterrorism
    A Medline Plus compilation with categories such as news, overviews, treatment, prevention/screening, pictures/diagrams, alternative therapy, coping, related issues, research, dictionaries/glossaries, directories, organizations, law and policy, and children.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biodefense Reference Library
    The Biodefense Reference Library is a collaborative initiative of international medical, veterinary and scientific experts to share information and enhance academic discussion of issues associated with preparedness, response, mitigation and policy. Sponsored by the Humanitarian Resource Institute.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response
    Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup
    The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. Evaluation of this vulnerability has focused on the role public health will have detecting and managing the probable covert biological terrorist incident with the realization that the U.S. local, state, and federal infrastructure is already strained as a result of other important public health problems. In partnership with representatives for local and state health departments, other federal agencies, and medical and public health professional associations, CDC has developed a strategic plan to address the deliberate dissemination of biological or chemical agents. The plan contains recommendations to reduce U.S. vulnerability to biological and chemical terrorism --- preparedness planning, detection and surveillance, laboratory analysis, emergency response, and communication systems. Training and research are integral components for achieving these recommendations. Success of the plan hinges on strengthening the relationships between medical and public health professionals and on building new partner-ships with emergency management, the military, and law enforcement professionals. MMWR 49 (RR04): 1-14. April 21, 2000.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biological Attack Likely by 2020, Report Warns
    A terrorist group is "likely" to conduct an attack using biological weapons by 2020, according to a report released Thursday by a CIA think tank. Over the next 15 years, successes in the global war on terrorism and advances in information technology are likely to result in an increasingly "decentralized" terrorist threat, consisting of an "eclectic array of groups, cells and individuals," says the report, prepared by the National Intelligence Council. While influenced by al-Qaeda, such smaller groups are expected to overshadow the terrorist organization by 2020 and could recruit new members through the war in Iraq and other possible conflicts, the report says. Article by Mike Nartker, Global Security Newswire, appearing in GovExec.Com Today, January 17, 2005.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biological Threat
    A biological attack is the deliberate release of germs or other biological substances that can make you sick. Many agents must be inhaled, enter through a cut in the skin or be eaten to make you sick. Some biological agents, such as anthrax, do not cause contagious diseases. Others, like the smallpox virus, can result in diseases you can catch from other people. Courtesy of the Department of Homeland Security's Ready.gov web page.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biological Warfare
    Biological pathogens released intentionally or accidentally, or naturally occurring, can result in disease or death. Recent terrorist attacks in the United States and elsewhere have prompted widespread and justified societal concerns about the hostile use of biological agents and their potential threats to health. Human exposure to these agents may occur through inhalation, skin (cutaneous) exposure, or ingestion of contaminated food or water. Following exposure, physical symptoms may be delayed and sometimes confused with naturally occurring illnesses. Biological warfare agents may persist in the environment and cause problems some time after their release. The selective list of agents below fall into four major groups, three classes of microorganisms - bacteria, rickettsia, and viruses, plus bacterial toxins, which are poisonous chemicals produced by bacteria. Incubation period, duration of illness, symptoms, means of transmission, treatment, and prognosis, are among the types of information linked to. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biological Weapons: A Primer
    Robert J. Hawley, Annual Review of Microbiology and Human Genetics, 55:235-253. 2001.
    Biological weapons are not new. Biological agents have been used as instruments of warfare and terror for thousands of years to produce fear and harm in humans, animals, and plants. Because they are invisible, silent, odorless, and tasteless, biological agents may be used as an ultimate weapon—easy to disperse and inexpensive to produce. Individuals in a laboratory or research environment can be protected against potentially hazardous biological agents by using engineering controls, good laboratory and microbiological techniques, personal protective equipment, decontamination procedures, and common sense. In the field or during a response to an incident, only personal protective measures, equipment, and decontamination procedures may be available. In either scenario, an immediate evaluation of the situation is foremost, applying risk management procedures to control the risks affecting health, safety, and the environment. The microbiologist and biological safety professional can provide a practical assessment of the biological weapons incident to responsible officials in order to help address microbiological and safety issues, minimize fear and concerns of those responding to the incident, and help manage individuals potentially exposed to a threat agent.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biological Weapons in the Twentieth Century: A Review and Analysis
    This article reviews the history of biological weapons and the political and societal influences on their management. Milton Leitenberg, June 2001.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biosecurity and Bioterrorism
    Subtitle: Biodefense strategy, Practice, and Science. Selected articles from the current issue are available free; all other articles need to be requests via interlibrary loan. Table of contents posted for Vol. 1, no. 1, 2003 to date . University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Center for Biosecurity.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Biosecurity and Chemical Weapons
    The Federation of American Scientists has created an internet resource for biosecurity policy, bioterrorism information, and biodefense research. The organizations listed here represent various perspectives on what actions individual scientists, research institutions, science journals, the public, and government can do to minimize the threat of bioterrorism while maximizing the benefits of life science research.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism Agents / Diseases
    A compilation of resources compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism and Emergency Response Preparedness of Local Health Departments in Kansas: 2003
    Kansas Department of Health and Environment. 2004.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism and Food Safety (Book)
    Barbara A. Rasco, Gleyn E. Bledsoe. Boca Raton : CRC Press, c2005. 414pp. Main Library Stacks TX531 .R37 2005
    Written by specialists in the fields of food bioterrorism and industry preparedness, Bioterrorism and Food Safety focuses on developing rational and implementable food security strategies. The book examines the risks associated with the intentional contamination of food. It provides implementation strategies to reduce food security risks and discusses the underlying legal issues tied to product liability and regulatory compliance. The text includes current hazards, provisions of the Bioterrorism Act, guidance documents from the FDA and USDA, and more. Risk management models are presented and workable strategies for addressing food safety risks are developed through case studies.

    Bioterrorism and Mass Casualty Preparedness in Hospitals: United States, 2003
    Reviews the content of hospital disaster planning since 2001. Most have updated plans for coping with nuclear, biological, chemical, and explosive incidents, but most do not have written agreements for cooperation with other local health facilities. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism: Coordination and Preparedness
    This report presents testimony before the House Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management, and Intergovernmental Relations on the efforts of federal agencies to prepare for the consequences of a bioterrorist attack. U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism : Emergency Preparedness and Response
    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, based in Atlanta, Georgia, presents information on its Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Program. The program discusses protocols for bioterrorist incidents, biological agents, program news, and emergency contacts. A compilation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism: Federal Research and Preparedness Activities
    This report describes the federal activities and funding related to the public health and medical consequences of a bioterrorist attack, details the coordination of activities among federal agencies and identifies any shortcomings in the current coordination structure, and reviews existing evaluations of the effectiveness of these activities in preparing state and local authorities. GAO Report, September 2001.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism in Michigan
    A Framework for Evaluating Risk
    William R. Beckman, Institute for Public Policy and Social Research and Institute for Health Care Studies at Michigan State University. Part of the Informing the Debate: Health Policy Options for Michigan Policy Makers series.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism Information for First Responders
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism: Information Technology Strategy Could Strengthen Federal Agencies' Abilities to Respond to Public Health Emergencies
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism Links
    Numerous web links courtesy of the Texas Department of State Health Services.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism Resources
    The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. (APIC), located in Washington, D.C., presents a collection of Internet resources about biological terrorism. The collection includes articles on such topics as anthrax, smallpox, medical management of biological casualties, defense against toxic weapons, strategic plans, and more.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Bioterrorism : Understanding and Preparing for the Threat
    Reproduces broadcasts about bioterrorism from the MacNeil-Lehrer News Hour in text and audio formats. Additional information covers a link to further data from the NOVA program and lesson plans for teachers.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Botulinum Toxin
    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon
    This is the fourth article in a series entitled Medical and Public Health Management Following the Use of a Biological Weapon: Consensus Statements of The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. This article is the only one in the series to feature a biological toxin rather than a replicating agent. Botulinum toxin poses a major bioweapon threat because of its extreme potency and lethality; its ease of production, transport, and misuse; and the need for prolonged intensive care among affected persons. An outbreak of botulism constitutes a medical emergency that requires prompt provision of botulinum antitoxin and, often, mechanical ventilation, and it constitutes a public health emergency that requires immediate intervention to prevent additional cases. Timely recognition of a botulism outbreak begins with an astute clinician who quickly notifies public health officials. Source: Feb. 28, 2001 issue of JAMA
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Botulism Reference Center
    A compilation of quick reference materials, news articles, and various other internet resources related to botulism. Courtesy of the St. Louis University Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases
    The biological agents listed have been placed into three categories by the CDC. Category A Diseases/Agents are high-priority agents and include organisms that pose a risk to national security. Category B Diseases/Agents are the second highest priority agents and include those that are moderately easy to disseminate; result in moderate morbidity rates and low mortality rates; and require specific enhancements of CDC's diagnostic capacity and enhanced disease surveillance. Category C Diseases/Agents are the third highest priority agents and include emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future because of availability; ease of production and dissemination; and potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impact.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response
    Contains Interim Recommended Notification Procedures for Local and State Public Health Department Leaders in the Event of a Bioterrorist Incident, and other information from CDC regarding Anthrax, Botulism, Pneumonic Plague and Smallpox.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    Strategic National Stockpile
    The pharmaceutical stockpile program was created to ensure the availability and rapid deployment of life-saving pharmaceuticals, antidotes, other medical supplies, and equipment necessary to counter the effects of nerve agents, biological pathogens, and chemical agents. This web site gives details of the program.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place
    This fact sheet describes "sheltering in place" in response to a chemical incident. It outlines how to prepare the shelter, how to know when to shelter in place, and how to secure your safe room. Centers for Disease Control, 2003.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Chemical and Biological Warfare
    Selected internet resources chosen by the Library of Congress.
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    Chemical Emergencies : Emergency Preparedness and Response
    A compilation of resources compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Chemical Threat
    A chemical attack is the deliberate release of a toxic gas, liquid or solid that can poison people and the environment. Courtesy of the Department of Homeland Security's Ready.gov web page.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Chemical Weapons Improved Response Program Playbook

    Guidelines for Responding to and Managing a Chemical Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorist Event. Revised May 2003. 131pp.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Combating Terrorism: Assessing the Threat of Biological Terrorism
    This report presents testimony before the House Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs, and International Relations on biological terrorism—the feasibility and likelihood of terrorist groups using biological or chemical weapons and what the government can and should do to deal with biological or chemical threats. RAND, October 2001.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Emergency Response Resources
    Information from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on topics include Safeguarding Building Ventilation, Anthrax, Chemical Hazards, Bloodborne Infectious Disease, and World Trade Center Response.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    FBI Criminal and Epidemiological Investigation Handbook
    Handbook offers advice on encouraging cooperation between public health and law enforcement officials in the event of a natural disaster or terrorism incident. Courtesy of the St. Petersburg College National Terrorism Preparedness Institute.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Firefighter Quick Reference Guide for Responding to Chemical and Biological Terrorist Incidents
    U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. September 2003. (44 pages, 1238 KB PDF)
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Firepower in the Lab: Automation in the Fight Against Infectious Diseases and Bioterrorism
    Scott P. Layne, Tony J. Beugelsdijk, and C. Kumar N. Patel, Editors. Washington D.C. : Joseph Henry Press,c2001.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments
    from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks

    NIOSH DHHS (NIOSH) Pub No. 2003-136, April, 2003.
    Also listed under Emergency Management.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
    This document identifies actions that a building owner or manager can implement without undue delay to enhance occupant protection from an airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attack. NIOSH, May, 2002.
    Also listed under Emergency Management.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Guidance on Allocating and Targeting Pandemic Influenza Vaccine
    New guidelines released by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Homeland Security prioritize recipients of available vaccines and medicines in the event of an influenza pandemic.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Guide for All Hazard Emergency Hazard Planning - Chapter 6, Terrorism
    Also listed under Emergency Management.
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    Guidelines for Cold Weather Mass Decontamination
    During a Terrorist Chemical Agent Incident
    Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. Revised August 2003. 35pp.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Guidelines for Responding to a Chemical Weapons Incident
    Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. August 2003. 39 pages, 913 KB PDF.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Also called Global Security Newswire
    Tracking the next military and technological revolutions. Pulls together wire service reports on topics such as agroterrorism and bioterrorism.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    The History of Biological Warfare
    Biological weapons are either living organisms that can reproduce, such as bacteria or viruses, or toxic materials produced by living organisms, such as toxins or physiologically active proteins or peptides. (Few biological weapons produce skin lesions; mycotoxin, such as was used in Kampuchea around 1980, is the rare exception.) Since they must be either inhaled or ingested, biological warfare (BW) agents must be dispersed as 1 to 10 µm particles or placed in food or water sources.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Hometown Hospitals: The Weakest Link?
    Bioterrorism Readiness in America's Hospitals
    A new report from the Center for Technology and National Security Policy at National Defense University uses a case study approach to describe the challenges facing rural hospitals as they attempt to simultaneously prepare for both bioterrorism and naturally occurring epidemics of emerging contagious diseases. According to the author, the findings of this report are “sobering” and “include a pervasive perception among study participants that major medical emergencies in America’s rural areas and heartland would quickly overwhelm the capabilities of their small hospitals.” The author provides this report to inform future initiatives intended to prepare America’s hospitals against threats to homeland security. Copyright request 2000.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Hospital Preparedness: Most Urban Hospitals Have Emergency Plans
    But Lack Certain Capacities for Bioterrorism Response
    Most of the country's urban hospitals do not have sufficient resources to handle a sudden surge in patients seeking medical attention because of a bioterrorist attack, according to a new report. Although 81 percent of the hospitals included in a new study by the General Accounting Office (03-924) have developed emergency response plans for bioterrorism, most also reported that they lacked enough medical equipment to treat large numbers of victims of a sudden terrorist attack. GAO surveyed 2,041 urban hospitals from May to September 2002. The availability of medical equipment, including ventilators, isolation beds and protective suits, varied among the hospitals GAO studied. "If a large number of patients with severe respiratory problems associated with anthrax or botulism were to arrive at a hospital, a comparable number of ventilators would be required to treat them. Yet half of the hospitals reported having fewer than six ventilators per 100 staffed beds," the report said. In addition, fewer than half of the hospitals surveyed have conducted drills simulating their response to a bioterror attack, GAO found. August 2003.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    How to Lead During Bioattacks with the Public's Trust and Help
    A manual for mayors, governors, and top health officials.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Implications for Public Policy of the Threat from Bioterrorism
    The threat posed by bioterrorism is real and deadly serious. The aim of this paper is to review the options for policymakers and informed citizens seeking to meet this new challenge. Graham Allison, Harvard University, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (BCSIA), November 2003.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Law Enforcement Officers Guide for Responding to Chemical Terrorist Incidents
    U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. January 2003. 33pp.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism (2002)
    See Chapter 4, Toxic Chemicals and Explosive Materials. The National Academies Press.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents Version 2001
    The MHMI series is a three volume set (with a video) comprised of recommendations for on-scene (prehospital), and hospital medical management of patients exposed during a hazardous materials incident. Guidance from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Managing Risk Without Precedent: Terror Attacks at Domestic Chemical Facilities
    Since September 11th, industries and federal regulatory agencies have scrambled to address a risk that has no precedent in the United States - the deliberate, criminal release of large quantities of chemicals from manufacturing facilities, with the intent to kill civilian targets or inflict massive damage on the surrounding environment. Article by Larry Kramer.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Measuring and Evaluating Local Preparedness for a Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attack
    This issue paper examines local organizations' preparedness to respond to chemical and biological terrorism incidents. The authors advocate establishing nationally representative measures of local responder preparedness. Ronald D. Fricker, Jr., RAND, 2002
    Also listed under Emergency Management.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook
    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Medical Diseases, 4th edition, Feb. 2001.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Medical Management Guidelines (MMGs)
    Advice from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to aid emergency department physicians and other emergency healthcare professionals who manage acute exposures resulting from chemical incidents.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    MedlinePlus Anthrax Page
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    MedlinePlus Biodefense and Bioterrorism Page
    News concerning bioterrorism from the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. The site includes information on coping with anxiety, alternative therapy, prevention/screening, and other topics.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Michigan State Medical Society
    Biodefense Resource Center
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Mustard Gas
    What is it? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    National Homeland Security Knowledgebase
    Biological Emergencies Collection

  • Introduction to Biological Warfare
  • Understanding the Dangers
  • Biological Emergency Preparedness
  • Biological Emergency Response Programs and Organizations
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    National Homeland Security Knowledgebase
    Chemical Emergencies Collection

  • Introduction to Chemical Warfare
  • Understanding the Dangers
  • Chemical Emergency Preparedness
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
    Biodefense Research Page
    This web site includes information on biodefense-related information for biomedical researchers, the public, and the media. There are also links to current biodefense-related news.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Nuclear Threat Institute Research Library
    NTI designed the Research Library as a searchable online resource to allow easy access to the facts about the threats from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, missile development programs and policies and terrorist activities. Whether you're seeking a simple explanation of a complex issue or looking for an in-depth analysis from a world-renowned expert, the library has a range of information including source documents, publications, vast databases of material, tutorials, and interactive maps and graphics.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    PBS NOVA Bioterror Web Page
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Plague as a Biological Weapon
    This is the third article in a series entitled Medical and Public Health Management Following the Use of a Biological Weapon: Consensus Statements of the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. The working group has identified a limited number of agents that, if used as weapons, could cause disease and death in sufficient numbers to cripple a city or region. These agents also comprise the top of the list of "Critical Biological Agents" recently developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is one of the most serious of these. Given the availability of Y pestis around the world, capacity for its mass production and aerosol dissemination, difficulty in preventing such activities, high fatality rate of pneumonic plague, and potential for secondary spread of cases during an epidemic, the potential use of plague as a biological weapon is of great concern. Source: May 3, 2000 issue of JAMA.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Plague Reference Center
    A compilation of quick reference materials, news articles, and various other internet resources related to plague. Courtesy of the St. Louis University Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Planning Guide: Improving Local and State Agency Response to Terrorist Incidents Involving Biological Weapons
    U.S. Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. Revised June 1, 2003 (60 pages, 802 KB PDF)
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Potential Biological Weapons Threat
    This article appearing in Emerging Infectious Diseases, July-August 1999 provides an overview of biological warfare by discussing the types of groups or individuals that might use biological weapons and the pathogens most effective as weapons.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Preparation and Planning for Bioterrorism Emergencies
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Preparing for Terrorism : Tools for Evaluating the Metropolitan Medical Response System Program
    Frederick J. Manning and Lewis Goldfrank, editors ; Committee on Evaluation of the Metropolitan Medical Response System Program, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine. Publisher Washington, DC : National Academy Press, c2002. 310pp. (Also available as print publication in the MSU Main Library.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Protecting Buildings From a Biological or Chemical Attack:
    Actions to Take Before or During a Release
    LBNL/PUB-51959. Lawrence Berkeley Labs. January 10, 2003.
    Also listed under Bioterrorism.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Public Health Preparedness and Response to Chemical and Radiological Incidents: Functions, Practices, and Areas for Future Work
    This 66 page report released in August 2009 looks into the world of public health emergency preparedness, and for those persons who work in the fields of emergency response policy, public health, or security studies, this work will be most timely. Authored by five researchers at the RAND Corporation this technical report looks into "the roles of the public health service in emergency preparedness and its response to chemical and radiological incidents." The report is divided into four chapters, two appendices, and a references section. As events like nuclear plant accidents, chemical terrorism, and other related occurrences can have tremendous implications for public health, the report is most valuable.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons: WHO Guidance (2004)
    The Public health response to biological and chemical weapons: WHO guidance has been revised and published in 2004. This second edition of WHO's 1970 publication Health aspects of biological and chemical weapons includes information designed to guide preparedness for and response to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents that affect health.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health from Diseases, Disasters, and Bioterrorism (2005)
    Trust for America's Health. December 2005. 84pp.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health from Diseases, Disasters, and Bioterrorism (2006)
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health from Diseases, Disasters, and Bioterrorism (2008)
    States have made great progress in preparing for bioterrorism, but there’s a level of complacency developing as well. There’s much more to learn in the annual assessment of the country’s preparedness for bioterrorism attacks by the nonprofit Trust for America’s Health. December 2008.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health in the Age of Bioterrorism (2004)
    The nation's public health system is still woefully unprepared to handle a biological terrorism attack, according to a report released Tuesday by the Trust for America's Health. The organization, a nonpartisan public health watchdog, sharply criticized a lack of leadership from the federal government and the absence of an overarching strategy to deal with an attack. "More than three years after 9/11, there is no clear definition for what the public should expect as protection in the event of bioterrorist attack or public health emergency," the group said in the report, Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health in the Age of Bioterrorism - 2004. "There are no real performance standards in place to assess how well the public would be protected in the event of such tragedies." Dec. 2004. 72pp.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Ready.gov (U.S. Department of Homeland Security)
    This government web site provides information on how to prepare for and react to a terrorist event. The site includes basic information on biological and chemical threats; making a kit for emergency situations; as well as how to react if an explosion, radiation threat, or nuclear blast occurs.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Responding to the Threat of Smallpox Bioterrorism: An Ounce of Prevention Is Best Approach
    According to this report, the current containment strategy favored by the U.S. government to deal with the threat of smallpox may not adequately protect against an attack of bioterrorism. The report recommends preventive measures, including diluting the current stockpile of smallpox vaccine to increase the supply and making it available to the public. The Cato Institute, 2002.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Ricin Fact Sheet
    Courtesy of the Michigan Department of Community Health Office of Public Health Preparedness.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Ricin Reference Center
    A compilation of quick reference materials, news articles, and various other internet resources related to ricin. Courtesy of the St. Louis University Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Ricin: Technical Background and Potential Role in Terrorism
    Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service report RS21383 by Dana Shea and Frank Gottron, updated February 4, 2004.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Saint Louis University
    School of Public Health
    Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases
    A very extensive collection of news, web links, online bibliographies on a whole range of issues related to bioterrorism.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    What is it? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Sheltering in Place: How to Find Temporary Shelter in Case of Emergency
    Some kinds of accidents or attacks may make going outdoors dangerous. Leaving the area might take too long or put people in harm’s way. In such a case it may be safer for people to stay indoors than to go outside. “Sheltering in place” is when people make a shelter out of the place they are in. It is a way for people to make the building as safe as possible to protect themselves until help arrives. CDC Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response.
    Also listed under Emergency Management.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Small Scale Terrorist Attacks:
    Using Chemical and Biological Agents:
    An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons
    Dana A. Shea and Framl Gottron, Congressional Research Service, May 20, 2004. RL32391. 89pp.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Smallpox as a Biological Weapon
    This is the second article in a series entitled Medical and Public Health Management Following the Use of a Biological Weapon: Consensus Statements of the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. The working group has identified a limited number of widely known organisms that could cause disease and deaths in sufficient numbers to cripple a city or region. Smallpox is one of the most serious of these diseases.
    If used as a biological weapon, smallpox represents a serious threat to civilian populations because of its case-fatality rate of 30% or more among unvaccinated persons and the absence of specific therapy. Although smallpox has long been feared as the most devastating of all infectious diseases,2 its potential for devastation today is far greater than at any previous time. Routine vaccination throughout the United States ceased more than 25 years ago. In a now highly susceptible, mobile population, smallpox would be able to spread widely and rapidly throughout this country and the world. Source: June 9, 1999 issue of JAMA.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Smallpox Reference Center
    A compilation of quick reference materials, news articles, and various other internet resources related to smallpox. Courtesy of the St. Louis University Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    What is it? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    What is it? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector
    CRS Report RS32189, Claudia Copeland and Betsy Cody, updated May 24, 2006.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    The Threat of Bioterrorism in the United States
    Assessing the Adequacy of the Federal Law Related to Dangerous Biologic Agents

    U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Commerce. Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Hearing 106-19. May 20, 1999.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Toxic Warfare
    This report examines "toxic warfare," the use of inexpensive chemicals and industrial waste in weaponry. It presents examples of where and how toxic weapons have been used in the past decade, analyzing U.S. operations during toxic warfare and current thinking in the United States about toxic weapons with respect to both military operations and homeland security. The final chapter offers recommendations for military and civilian crisis response planning. RAND, 2002.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Triage for Civil Support:
    Using Military Medical Assets to Respond to Terrorist Attacks
    "Even before September 11, 2001, threat assessments suggested that the United States should prepare to respond to terrorist attacks inside its borders. This monograph examines the use of military medical assets to support civil authorities in the aftermath of a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or conventional high explosives attack inside the United States. The authors focus on key questions, including under what circumstances military medical assets could be requested and what assets are likely to be requested." RAND Corporation.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Tularemia as a Biological Weapon
    Tularemia, a bacterial zoonosis, is the subject of this fifth article in a series providing recommendations for medical and public health management following use of various agents as biological weapons of terrorism. The causative agent of tularemia, Francisella tularensis, is one of the most infectious pathogenic bacteria known, requiring inoculation or inhalation of as few as 10 organisms to cause disease. Humans become incidentally infected through diverse environmental exposures and can develop severe and sometimes fatal illness but do not transmit infection to others. The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense considers F tularensis to be a dangerous potential biological weapon because of its extreme infectivity, ease of dissemination, and substantial capacity to cause illness and death. Source: June 6, 2001 issue of JAMA.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Tularemia Reference Center
    A compilation of quick reference materials, news articles, and various other internet resources related to tularemia. Courtesy of the St. Louis University Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
    Home page for USAMRIDD,the Department of Defense's lead laboratory for medical aspects of biological warfare defense. "USAMRIID conducts research to develop vaccines, drugs and diagnostics for laboratory and field use. In addition to developing medical countermeasures, USAMRIID formulates strategies, information, procedures, and training programs for medical defense against biological threats."
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
    Center for Biosecurity
    Includes guidelines for preparedness to hospitals physicians and public health agencies, factsheets on various bio-agents, FAQ for the general public and "much, much, more..."
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Update: Investigation of Anthrax Associated with Intentional Exposure and Interim Public Health Guidelines
    Updates the findings of preliminary investigations of documented Anthrax cases in the U.S. since the September 11th attacks. This report also includes interim guidelines for postexposure prophylaxis for prevention of inhalation anthrax and other information to assist epidemiologists, clinicians, and laboratorians responding to intentional anthrax exposures. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, October 2001.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Viral Hemorraghic Fevers
    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Viral Hemorrhogic Fevers (VHF) Reference Center
    A compilation of quick reference materials, news articles, and various other internet resources related to vhf. Courtesy of the St. Louis University Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    What is it? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 10/12/11)

    Government Documents from a Different Era -- the Fifties

    Before Disaster Strikes...What the Farmer Should Know About Biological Warfare. Federal Civil Defense Administration. August 1954. 19pp. Gov. Docs. Library FCD 1.6/4: H11-2

    Civil Defense Against Biological Warfare. Federal Civil Defense Administration. November 1953. 42pp. Gov. Docs. Library FCD 1.6/3: 11-10

    What You Should Know About Biological Warfare. Federal Civil Defense Administration. 1951. 30pp. Gov. Docs. Library FCD 1.2: B52


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