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Criminal Justice Resources :

Bomb Threats and Radiological Incidents


Related web pages:

  • Agro-Security
  • Bioterrorism (Including Biological and Chemical Threats),
  • Bomb Threats and Radiological Incidents,
  • Emergency Management,
  • Terrorism Groups and Related Issues,
  • Transportation Security,
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction.
  • Arson and Explosives National Repository
    http://www.atf.gov/aexis2/index.htm
    The National Repository was established by congressional mandate in 1996 as a national collection center for information on arson and explosives related incidents throughout the United States. The National Repository databases incorporates information from various sources such as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives; the Federal Bureau of Investigation; and the United States Fire Administration. Information maintained by the National Repository is available for statistical analysis and investigative research by scholars and the law enforcement community.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Bomb and Arson Crimes Among American Gang Members: A Behavioral Science Profile
    http://www.ngcrc.com/bombarso.html
    Fall 2001 Special Edition of the Journal of Gang Research focusing on Gangs and Terrorism.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Bomb Threat Response : An Interactive Planning Tool for Schools (CD-ROM)
    http://www.threatplan.org
    Provides guidance for schools on how to react to a bomb threat. 2002. Schools can request a free copy of the cd.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Bomb Threats and Physical Security Planning
    http://nsi.org/Library/Terrorism/bombthreat.html
    The following information is designed to help both the public and private sectors prepare for the potential threat of explosives-related violence. While the ideas set forth herein are applicable in most cases, they are intended only as a guide. The information provided is compiled from a wide range of sources, including the actual experiences of special agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF). Document preserved by National Security Institute's Security Resource Net.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Bombing of America
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bombing/index.html
    PBS online exhibit on bombing and terrorism, with information about chemical bombs, juvenile bombers, suspects, and police and forensics procedures. (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Bombing of the World Trade Center (Interpol)
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030621140207/
    http://www.interpol.int/Public/Publications/ICPR/ICPR469_3.asp

    On 26th February 1993, at approximately 12.18 p.m., an improvised explosive device exploded on the second level of the World Trade Center parking basement. The resulting blast produced a crater, approximately 150 feet in diameter and five floors deep, in the parking basement. The structure consisted mainly of steel-reinforced concrete, twelve to fourteen inches thick. The epicenter of the blast was approximately eight feet from the south wall of Trade Tower Number One, near the support column K31/8. The device had been placed in the rear cargo portion of a one-ton Ford F350 Econoline van, owned by the Ryder Rental Agency, Jersey City, New Jersey. Approximately 6,800 tons of material were displaced by the blast. The main explosive charge consisted primarily of approximately 1,200 to 1,500 pounds of a home-made fertilizer-based explosive, urea nitrate. The fusing system consisted of two 20-minute lengths of a non-electric burning type fuse such as green hobby fuse. The hobby fuse terminated in the lead azide, as the initiator. Also incorporated in the device and placed under the main explosive charge were three large metal cylinders (tare weight 126 pounds) of compressed hydrogen gas. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Bombs in Brooklyn
    How the Two Illegal Aliens Arrested for Plotting to Bomb the New York Subway Entered and Remained in the United States
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030622151540/
    http://www.usdoj.gov/oig/brookb/brbrtoc.htm

    In this report, the Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General (OIG) examines how two aliens, Gazi Ibrahim Abu Mezer (Mezer) and Lafi Khalil (Khalil), entered and remained in the United States before they were arrested on July 31, 1997, in a Brooklyn apartment for allegedly planning to bomb the New York City subway system. After their arrest, it was quickly discovered that both were Palestinians who were in the United States illegally. March 1998.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Bombs: Protecting People and Property
    http://www.mipt.org/pdf/bombs_protectpeopleproperty.pdf
    Contains terrorism preparedness and blast mitigation information relevant to large and small businesses, local government, and other organizations. United Kingdom's Home Office, 4th edition, 1999. 32pp.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
    http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/index.asp
    Pulls together various fact sheets from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including:

  • Radiation Facts: Q&A regarding the basics of radiation exposure, health effects, and protective measures.
  • Radiation and Health Effects: Fact sheet about radiation exposure, the health effects of such exposure, and preventative measures.
  • Nuclear Terrorism & Health Effects: Q&A regarding protective measures during a nuclear attack, potential health risks of such an attack, and emergency response.
  • Potassium Iodide (KI): Fact sheet about when KI might be appropriate and what people should consider before making a decision to take KI.
  • Dirty Bombs: Fact sheet discussing the possibility of a terrorist attack involving conventional weapons and radioactive materials, and the potential harmful effects of radiation from such an event.
  • Acute Radiation Syndrome: Fact sheet describing radiation sickness, known as acute radiation syndrome, a serious illness that occurs when the entire body (or most of it) receives a high dose of radiation, usually over a short period of time.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About a Radiation Emergency: FAQs about protective measures in the case of a nuclear event, response plans, and precautions to minimize risk.
  • Sheltering in Place During a Radiation Emergency: Facts about sheltering in place in the event of a terrorist attack involving radioactive materials.
  • CDC's Roles in the Event of Radiological Terrorist Event: Fact sheet describing what CDC will do to protect people's health in a radiological terrorist event.
  • Possible Health Effects of Radiation Exposure on Unborn Babies: Fact sheet discussing what the effects of radiation from a terrorist event might be on pregnant women's unborn babies.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Common Chemicals as Precursors of Improvised Explosive Devices : The Challenges of Defeating Domestic Terrorism
    http://www.terrorisminfo.mipt.org/pdf/NPS-Thesis-Common-Chemicals-Precursors.pdf
    This thesis, by James I. Rostberg, discusses "various options, policies and procedures to ascertain which would be most appropriate to defeat explosives manufactured from common chemicals. Options include removing, restricting, and tracking certain chemicals available to the public as well as increasing awareness to emergency responders and the public. State and federal legislation pertaining to methamphetamine laboratories is analyzed to identify potential crossover legislation to counter explosives manufacture. Intelligence gathering and information sharing technologies and procedures are assessed for effectiveness as law enforcement tools."
    James I. Rostberg, September 2005.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    The "Dirty Bomb" Scenario
    http://hps.org/documents/RDD_report.pdf
    After Jose Padilla was arrested in 2002 for allegedly planning a "dirty bomb" attack, Attorney General John Ashcroft described such a device—conventional explosives wrapped around radioactive contaminants—as an instrument of "mass death and injury." A team at the National Defense University has spent the past year assessing the real nature of the threat, and its findings are disturbing: a successful dirty-bomb attack might contaminate an area the size of the Washington Mall, and the "maximum credible events" envisioned by the report could kill dozens or hundreds, sicken thousands, and ruin a metropolis (contaminated buildings would probably have to be razed and the debris carted off, along with a meter of topsoil, in what experts call "muck and truck"). Worse, terrorists might achieve the "dirty" results without the bomb, by quietly releasing radiation through smoke or an aerosol, so that the damage would be done before the attack was even noticed. To explore the consequences of such an attack, researchers looked at a real-life disaster that occurred in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, in 1987. Junk-metal pirates salvaged cesium from an abandoned radiation lab and passed the "glowing blue material" to family and friends. The cesium eventually spread through buses, ambulances, animal fur, bars, and restaurants, until 112,000 Brazilians were tested for radiation in an Olympic-size soccer stadium; 249 people were determined to have been contaminated, forty-nine were hospitalized, and five died. (Goiânia, bitter from the ensuing economic isolation and stigma, added the universal insignia for radioactivity to its flag.) Source: "Dirty Bombs: The Threat Revisited," Peter D. Zimmerman with Cheryl Loeb, National Defense University, cited in The Atlantic Monthly; April 2004; Primary Sources; Volume 293, No. 3; 42-44.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Dirty Bombs (Fox News)
    http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,76873,00.html
    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Dirty Bombs (Nova)
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/dirtybomb/
    Prying the toxic lid off the glowing can of worms made famous by alleged terrorist sympathizer Jose Padilla, Nova examines the facts and fallacies surrounding the hypothetical "dirty bomb." This companion site reviews past nuclear incidents, and examines sources of radiation found in our everyday environment.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Dirty Bombs: Reference Center
    http://www.bioterrorism.slu.edu/dirty.htm
    A compilation of quick reference materials, news articles, and various other internet resources related to dirty bombs. Courtesy of the St. Louis University Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infectious Diseases.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Emergency Preparedness : Bomb Threats
    http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/EHSRM/EMERGENCY/bomb.html
    Advisory from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Department of Environmental Health, Safety, and Risk Management.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Explosions
    http://www.ready.gov/america/beinformed/explosions.html
    What to do if there is an explosion, fire, or debris. Courtesy of the Department of Homeland Security's Ready.gov web page.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    The Four Faces of Nuclear Terrorism (Bomb)
    A new book from the Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) warns that substandard security at nuclear facilities in Europe, Central Asia, Russia, and Pakistan increases the risk of terrorists seizing highly enriched uranium to make crude, but devastating, nuclear explosives. Led by CNS Director William Potter and CNS Scientist-in-Residence Charles Ferguson, a team of researchers, including Leonard Spector, Amy Sands, and Fred Wehling, conducted a two-year study of the motivations and capabilities of terrorist organizations to carry out attacks using stolen nuclear weapons, to construct and detonate crude nuclear weapons known as improvised nuclear devices (INDs), to strike nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, and to build and use radiological weapons or 'dirty bombs.'"
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Global Security’s Collection of GAO Reports on Nuclear/Chemical/Biological Terrorism
    http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/report/gao/index.html#nuke-chem-bio
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    A Guide for Explosion and Bombing Scene Investigation
    http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/181869.pdf
    http://www.securitymanagement.com/library/nij_181869.pdf
    Outlines the tasks that should be considered at every explosion scene, focusing on those related to the identification, collection, and preservation of evidence. Consistent collection of quality evidence in bombing cases will result in more successful investigations and prosecutions. This Research Report—designed to apply to highly complex and visible cases as well as those that attract less attention and fewer resources but may be just as complex for the investigator—discusses procuring equipment and tools, prioritizing initial response efforts, evaluating the scene, documenting the scene, processing evidence at the scene, and completing and recording the scene investigation. NCJ181869. June 2000.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Loose Nukes
    http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,76881,00.html
    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Michigan Department of Community Health
    Office of Public Emergency Preparedness
    Radiological Emergencies Web page
    http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-2945_21919_22007-46264--,00.html
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    National Homeland Security Knowledgebase
    Hazardous Devices, Bombs, and Explosive Ordnance Emergencies
    http://www.twotigersonline.com/resources.html#Bombs-1
    Includes:

  • Introduction to Explosives
  • Understanding the Threat
  • Bomb and Explosive Ordnance Emergency Prep
  • Additional Resources and Organizations
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    National Homeland Security Knowledgebase
    Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies
    http://www.twotigersonline.com/resources.html
    Includes:

  • Introduction to Radiation
  • Understanding the Dangers
  • Nuclear / Radiological Emergency Preparedness
  • Geiger counters / radiation survey meters
  • Potassium iodide (critical thyroid protection)
  • Radiological Emergency Response Programs
  • Federal [Top Level]
  • Related Federal Agencies and Organizations
  • Additional Resources
  • Related National Labs and Facilities
  • Organizations and Societies
  • Additional Resources
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Nuclear Attack
    http://www.nae.edu/NAE/pubundcom.nsf/weblinks/CGOZ-6DZLNU/$file/nuclear%20attack%2006.pdf
    What is radioactive fallout, and how is it dangerous? What are the short term and long term effects of radiation exposure? What is the likely size of a nuclear explosion from an attack by terrorists? A fact sheet on one of four types of possible terrorist attacks. Designed primarily for reporters as part of the project News and Terrorism: Communicating in a Crisis, though they will be helpful to anyone looking for a clear explanation of the fundamentals of science, engineering, and health related to such attacks. From the National Academies and the Department of Homeland Security. National Research Council Division on Earth and Life Studies.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Nuclear Threat
    http://www.ready.gov/america/beinformed/nuclear.html
    A nuclear blast is an explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging pressure wave and widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water and ground surfaces for miles around. While experts may predict at this time that a nuclear attack is less likely than other types, terrorism by its nature is unpredictable. Courtesy of the Department of Homeland Security's Ready.gov web page.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Package Bomb Indicators
    http://www.emergency.com/pkgbomb.htm
    Document courtesy of the U.S. Postal Inspector's Office. From EmergencyNet News Archives, 1994.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Pascal's New Wager: The Dirty Bomb Threat Heightens
    http://www.cdi.org/program/issue/document.cfm?DocumentID=
    435&IssueID=59&StartRow=1&ListRows=10&appendURL=&Orderby=
    DateLastUpdated&ProgramID=39&issueID=59

    A Jan. 30 report from the British Broadcasting Corp. (BBC) claims al Qaeda's attempts to manufacture a 'dirty bomb' are much more advanced than was previously known. The report was based on previously undisclosed evidence released to the BBC by the U.K. authorities, including intelligence reports from British agents who had infiltrated al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan. Al Qaeda training manuals detailing how to best use dirty bombs were also uncovered — as was a quantity of radioactive materials. According to the BBC, officials at the Porton Down defense research center in Wiltshire, England, where these materials were analyzed, concluded "al Qaeda had a small dirty bomb but probably not a full blown nuclear device." Center for Defense Information.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Potential Threat to Homeland Using Heavy Transport Vehicles
    http://agr.wa.gov/FoodSecurity/docs/ThreatBulletin.pdf
    July 30, 2004 warning from the DHS and FBI about truck bombs. 7pp.
    (Last checked 04/12/06)

    Radiation Threat
    http://www.ready.gov/america/beinformed/radiation.html
    A radiation threat or "Dirty Bomb" is the use of common explosives to spread radioactive materials over a targeted area. It is not a nuclear blast. The force of the explosion and radioactive contamination will be more localized. While the blast will be immediately obvious, the presence of radiation will not be clearly defined until trained personnel with specialized equipment are on the scene. As with any radiation, you want to try to limit exposure. Courtesy of the Department of Homeland Security's Ready.gov web page.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Radiological Attack : Dirty Bombs and Other Devices
    http://www.nae.edu/NAE/pubundcom.nsf/weblinks/CGOZ-646NVG/$file/radiological%20attack%2006.pdf
    What are radiological dispersal devices, a.k.a. "dirty bombs"? How are they different from nuclear bombs? What are their physical and psychological health effects? First in a series of factsheets on one of four types of possible terrorist attacks. Designed primarily for reporters as part of the project News and Terrorism: Communicating in a Crisis, though they will be helpful to anyone looking for a clear explanation of the fundamentals of science, engineering, and health related to such attacks. From the National Academies and the Department of Homeland Security. National Research Council Division on Earth and Life Studies.
    (Last checked 07/13/06)

    Radiological Preparedness
    http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/preparedness/
    Resources provided by the Texas Department of State Health Services.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    Suitcase Bomb
    http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,76990,00.html
    What is it? How is it spread? What Are the Symptoms of Exposure? How Is It Treated? Who Has It/Where Can It Be Found? Courtesy of Fox News.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    Dirty Bombs Fact Sheet
    http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/dirty-bombs.html
    A "dirty bomb" or radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a conventional explosive or bomb containing radioactive material. The conventional bomb is used as a means to spread radioactive contamination. It is not a nuclear bomb and does not involve a nuclear explosion. Any type of radioactive material could be used in a dirty bomb, but in general these devices would be unlikely to cause serious health effects beyond those caused by the detonation of conventional explosives.
    (Last checked 09/18/09)

     

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