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Criminal Justice Resources :


Corrections Quotes

"The direct costs of incarceration range from about a thousand dollars a month for a minimim security, dormatory-style lock-up with no siginficant counseling, to about three thousand dollars monthly for a high security suicide-watch, and the indirect costs to the community are even higher. When the person who is imprisoned needs mental health services, add about $50 per hour to these costs up to $100 thousand per year. On average, it would be much cheaper to give a person a year in college than a year in a juvenile hall, jail, or prison." Source: Friends Committee on Legislation Education Fund Alternatives to Imprisonment, December 28, 2000, still available thanks to the Internet Archive.

Michigan is the Midwest's king of incarceration. The state has about 50,000 prisoners and another 70,000-plus on parole or probation. Michigan's incarceration rate towers over those of neighboring states. To house prisoners, the state has opened 35 prisons since 1985 alone, notes the Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending. The Department of Corrections employs more than 17,000 people, or about one in every three on the state payroll. It costs taxpayers $34,000 a year to house a prisoner. Source: "State's policy has imprisoned its future" (editorial), Lansing State Journal, January 1, 2008.

According to the 2008 Annual Report of the Michigan Department of Corrections, the average annual cost to house a prisoner ranges from $16,973 for Security Level 1/Prison camp to $38,511 for Security Level 5/Maximum Security, or an average of $27,262 for all levels. Average annual costs for prisoners in the community range from $2,133 for community supervision, to $2,148 for electronic monitoring, to $42,001 for the full blown residential re-entry program.

"For the vast majority of inmates prison is a temporary, not a final, destination. The experiences inmates have in prison -- whether violent or redemptive - do not stay within prison walls, but spill over into the rest of society. Federal, state, and local governments must address the problems faced by their respective institutions and develop tangible and attainable solutions." Senator Tom Coburn, M.D. (R-OK), Chair of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Corrections and Rehabilitation. Source: Commission on Safety and Abuse in America"s Prisons.

America has more people in prisons and jails -- 2.2 million -- than any other country in the world. And over the next five years, the number of prison inmates is projected to grow three times faster than the national population. Prison crowding in California has become so critical that Republican Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger has tried sending inmates to other states. And in Philadelphia a federal judge has called crowded conditions in city jails inhumane, warning that prisoners might have to be released. With the cost of housing prisoners projected to reach $40 billion by 2011, alternatives to incarceration for nonviolent crimes are being proposed, even by law-and-order prison officials and politicians. Meanwhile, support is growing for more rehabilitation programs in prisons as well as a bipartisan proposal to help ex-inmates stay out of prison. Source: Peter katel, "Prison Reform : Are too many nonviolent criminals being incarcerated?", Congressional Quarterly, Volume 17, Issue 13, April 6, 2007.

The United States incarcerates more people than any country in the world, including the far more populous nation of China. At the start of the new year, the American penal system held more than 2.3 million adults. China was second, with 1.5 million people behind bars, and Russia was a distant third with 890,000 inmates, according to the latest available figures. Beyond the sheer number of inmates, America also is the global leader in the rate at which it incarcerates its citizenry, outpacing nations like South Africa and Iran. In Germany, 93 people are in prison for every 100,000 adults and children. In the U.S, the rate is roughly eight times that, or 750 per 100,000. Source: "One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008", Pew Center on the States. Monthly Review Magazine, January 3, 2008.

Michigan Corrections News Articles from the Red Tape Blog.

Web Sites and Reports (Alphabetical) With Annotations

Perspectives on the American Criminal System
Web Documentary Slams Home Reality of Prisons. The title "360degrees" reflects both the structure and theme of this Web documentary, which was designed to offer multiple perspectives on criminal justice. Just as the camera appears to pan around each room, so the commentary also shows every side -- criminal, victim, prosecutor, defense attorney, families, scholars, and criminal historians. The idea, say Alison Cornyn and Sue Johnson of Picture Projects, is to inspire dialogue -- and to instigate change. Be sure to check out the timeline (601 to present) exploring the creation of prisons as know them today and suggestions for integrating this site into academic curriculums.
Also listed under Criminal Justice Resources -- History
(Last checked 03/15/16)

ACLU Prisoners Rights
The ACLU's National Prison Project is the only national litigation program on behalf of prisoners. Since 1972, the NPP has represented more than 100,000 men, women and children. The NPP continues to fight unconstitutional conditions and the "lock 'em up" mentality that prevails in the legislatures. Learn more about our project and take action to protect the rights guaranteed to all Americans.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Addressing Correctional Officer Stress: Programs and Strategies
Stress among correctional officers is widespread, according to both research and anecdotal evidence. Correctional officers live with the threat of violence and actual violence committed by inmates, as well as inmate demands and manipulation. These factors, combined with understaffing, extensive overtime, rotating shift work, low pay, poor public image, problems with coworkers, can impair officers' health, impair family life, and cause officers to burn out or retire early.
This publication is designed to help correctional administrators develop an effective program to prevent and treat officer stress. Seven diverse case studies showcase effective approaches that administrators can consider adapting. Topics discussed in this NIJ Issues and Practices report include options for staffing a stress program, ideas for gaining officers' trust in the program, and sources of help to implement or improve a stress program. Monitoring techniques, evaluation, and funding are also addressed. Feb. 2001.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

After Prison: Roadblocks to Reentry
This report, a summary of the findings of an exhaustive two-year study by U.S. Justice Fund grantee Legal Action Center (LAC), reveals the legal obstacles that people with criminal records face when they attempt to reenter society and become productive, law-abiding citizens. The report finds that people with criminal records seeking reentry face a daunting array of counterproductive, debilitating and unreasonable roadblocks in almost every important aspect of life. Paul Samuels and Debbie Mukamal, Legal Action Center, 2004. 26pp. #1902.
Also listed in our online catalog.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Alcatraz Island: Golden Gate National Recreation Area
Although primarily a National Park Service web page, it does include information on the history of Alcatraz as a federal penitentiary. Note: temporarily unavailable.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Bail Bond Policy Blog
Examines the effects of bail bond policy and pretrial release programs in county jails. Our goal is to provide a community for those affected either directly or indirectly by the incarceration of loved ones by providing resources and information to help jail inmates, friends and family.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

BBC Prison Study
The BBC Prison Study explores the social and psychological consequences of putting people in groups of unequal power. It examines when people accept inequality and when they challenge it. Findings from the study were first broadcast by the BBC in 2002. They have since been published in leading scientific journals and textbooks and have also entered the core student syllabus. They have changed our basic understanding of how groups and power work.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Bearing the Burden: How Incarceration Weakens Inner-City Communities
The majority of prison inmates come from and return to disadvantaged, minority communities. This paper explored how high rates of incarceration might weaken already fragile inner-city neighborhoods. At low levels, the experience of incarceration was largely an individual and family matter. However, at high levels of incarceration, communities must support increasing numbers of economically and socially impaired men, women, and children. That burden might exacerbate existing strains within the community, such as unemployment and crime. Ways to measure the discrete effects of incarceration on community destabilization are discussed near the end of the paper. Article by Joan Moore, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population
This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the impact of drug and alcohol abuse on the nation's prison and jail population. This three-year study uses data from national inmate surveys, surveys of corrections officials and prosecutors, economic and census data and a review of the research literature. The report includes analyses of the relationship between substance abuse, crime and the prison population; inmate characteristics; the impact of substance abuse on women inmates; HIV/AIDS among inmates; the economic and social costs of inmate substance involvement; the availability and effectiveness of treatment and other rehabilitative services; new innovations to reduce the impact of substance abuse; and key recommendations for improving the criminal justice system's response to drug- and alcohol-related crime and substance-involved inmates. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. January 1998.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Behind Bars II: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population
America's prisons and jails are rife with addiction and substance use. CASA Columbia's research shows that the increase in America's prison population is due overwhelmingly to criminal activity linked to alcohol and other drug use and addiction. Between 1996 and 2006, as the U.S. population rose by 12%, the number of adults incarcerated rose by 33% to 2.3 million inmates, and the number of inmates who were substance-involved shot up by 43% to 1.9 million inmates. This report is an exhaustive analysis of the extent to which alcohol and other drugs are implicated in the crimes and incarceration of America's prison population. Published: February 2010.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Beyond the Prison Gates
Parole has undergone significant changes over the past generation. Far fewer prisoners are released by parole boards. Far more released prisoners are supervised after they leave prison. The number of parole revocations has increased dramatically. Yet these national trends mask substantial variations at the state level. Some states have abolished parole boards. Some have increased, others have decreased, the use of parole supervision. In some states, parole violators constitute more than one half of their prison admissions. These profound shifts at the national and state level raise basic questions about the role of parole in American sentencing policy. Jeremy Travis and Sarah Lawrence, Urban Institute, November 05, 2002.
Also listed in our online catalog.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Beyond the Walls: Improving Conditions of Confinement for Youth in Custody
January 1998.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Bibliography on Correctional Privatization

Charles W. Thomas, University of Florida, Center for Studies in Criminology and Law, January 24, 2000. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Big Prisons, Small Towns:
Prison Economics in Rural America
Ryan S. King, Marc Mauer and Tracy Huling. Sentencing Project.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Bigotry Behind Bars: Racist Groups in U.S. Prisons
Driven by a belief in their superiority, white supremacist prison gangs contribute to increased racial tensions and violence in American penitentiaries. Not only do their activities undermine prison security, but their extreme rhetoric and animosity toward other races often stay with gang members long after their release. Prison officials estimate that up to 10 percent of the nation's prison population is affiliated with gangs. Anti-Defamation League, 2001.
Also listed in our library catalog.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Boot Camp Drug Treatment and Aftercare Interventions: An Evaluation Review

July 1995. Still available thanks to the Internet Archives.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Boot Camps : A Growing Menace to African American Males

African American Male Research, September/October 1996, Volume 1, Number 1.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Boot Camps and Prison Overcrowding

Prison boot camps reduce crowding only under a limited set of difficult-to-achieve conditions. Population simulations suggest that to reduce prison crowding boot camps must recruit offenders who otherwise would be imprisoned, offer big reductions in prison terms for completing a boot camp, minimize washout and return-to-prison rates, and operate on a large scale. Few boot camps meet these conditions. Many limit eligibility to nonviolent first offenders, select offenders who otherwise would receive probation, and intensively supervise graduates, thus increasing return-to-prison rates for technical violations. In most jurisdictions, boot camps appear more likely to increase correctional populations and costs rather than reduce them. These findings have important implications for how those programs should be designed and operated. If boot camps are intended to reduce prison populations, they should have a large capacity; they should select participants from among offenders already committed for relatively long prison terms; and they should implement policies to minimize in-program and postrelease failures. Dale G. Parent. February 1996. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Boot Camps for Juvenile Offenders
In April 1992, experimental boot camps for juvenile offenders were established in Cleveland, Ohio; Denver, Colorado; and Mobile, Alabama to serve each of these jurisdictions. In the summer of 1995, Caliber Associates submitted interim reports on the impact of each boot camp. The cross-site summary report presented here combines and emphasizes the critical findings of the evaluation across the three demonstration sites. September 1997. 60 pp.
Also listed in our library catalog.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Boot Camps for Troubled Teens
Boot Camps is a site dedicated to help troubled teens, provide information to parents with troubled teens on juvenile boot camps for troubled teens, and juvenile boot camp alternatives.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Boot Camps: Mixed Reviews
Prepared by the Koch Crime Commission, November 1995. Still available thanks to the Internet Archives.
Also listed in our catalog.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Borrowing Against the Future : The Impact of Prison Expansion on Arizona Families, Schools and Communities
This report, commissioned by Grassroots Leadership and the Arizona Advocacy Network, details the growth trajectory of prison expansion in Arizona and the effect it has had in terms of decreased funding for education and other social services in the state.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

A Brief History of Privately Managed Secure Correctional Facilities
A short article by Correctional Services, Inc.. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Broken Windows Probation : The Next Step in Fighting Crime
The authors, twelve leading probation officials from across the country and MI Senior Fellow John DiIulio, offer a damning critique of how probation is currently practiced, along with a multi-step reform program that will make our neighborhoods safer and save lives. The authors and the Institute will continue to promote this model in the coming year by assisting probation departments implementing the report’s recommendations. Civic Report no.7 sponsored by the Manhattan Institute.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Building Culture Strategically: A Team Approach for Corrections
Presents a model designed to produce higher quality work, build collaboration and interdependence, create safer and more secure environments, and, ultimately, help correctional facilities move strategically toward a more positive culture that will improve the quality of life for both staff and offenders. Not available from NCJRS. Carol Flaherty-Zonis Associates (Scottsdale, AZ). National Institute of Corrections (Washington, DC). (ACCN 021749, 269 pp.) (NIC)
(Last checked 03/15/16)

California's Parole Experiment
Over the past 25 years, the per capita rate of incarceration in America has increased four-fold. More than 2 million individuals are now locked up in prison or jail. The increase has taken on a unique twist in California, particularly in regard to its parole policy. Unlike many other states, nearly every prisoner released in California is placed on parole, and studies indicate the state has an especially tough policy on parole violators. As a result, California is now the national leader in returning parolees to prison and its return rate has increased 30 times between 1980 and 2000. Jeremy Travis and Sarah Lawrence, Urban Institute, August 01, 2002. [Copyright: California Journal, August 2002.]
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Can Prisons Rehabilitate Criminals?
Campus Access
Off-Campus Access for MSU Students : Type in title in quick search box.
For most of the 20th century, society put more emphasis on rehabilitating criminals than on punishing them. But in the mid-1970s, with mounting public concern about the threat of crime and growing skepticism about the effectiveness of rehabilitation, Americans began to focus on two other purposes of prison—retribution and public safety. Now, however, prisons have become severely overcrowded, and policy makers are taking another look at rehabilitation and alternative corrections programs. Sarah Glazer, Editorial Research Reports via CQ Researcher Archive, August 4, 1989.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Cellblocks or Classrooms:
The funding of higher education and corrections and its impact on African American men. Provides state by state fiscal analysis of corrections and higher education spending over the last 15 years. Justice Policy Institute. 2002.
Also cataloged and listed in Magic, our online catalog.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ)
The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) is a private non-profit organization with a mission to reduce reliance on incarceration as a solution to social problems. Established in 1985 as the Western Regional Office of the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives (NCIA), CJCJ maintains a professional staff with diverse backgrounds and expertise in the various components of criminal justice with its senior staff members possessing over fifteen years experience in the justice field. Headquartered in San Francisco, CJCJ provides direct services, technical assistance and policy research in the criminal justice field. The Center includes offices in Oakland, California, The District of Columbia, Baltimore, Maryland and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Includes links to online publications about juvenile justice, adult corrections, sentencing, alternatives to incarceration, and drug policy, as well as links to other web resources.
Also listed under Criminal Justice Resources : Associations and Organizations
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending
A non-profit public policy organization concerned about the social and economic costs of prison expansion. Because policy choices, not crime rates, have caused our prison population to explode, CAPPS advocates re-examining those policies and shifting our resources to public services that prevent crime, rehabilitate offenders, and address the needs of all our citizens in a cost-effective manner. To achieve these goals, CAPPS develops data-driven proposals for reducing the prison population while ensuring public safety. It informs policymakers, advocacy groups, the news media, and the general public about these issues through numerous means, including a website, a newsletter, research reports, legislative testimony, speaking appearances, and the distribution of information kits to legislators and the media.
(Last checked 04/28/06)

Class Dismissed: Higher Education vs. Corrections During the Wilson Years
States around the country spent more building prisons than colleges in 1995 for the first time. That year, there was nearly a dollar-for-dollar tradeoff between corrections and higher education, with university construction funds decreasing by $954 million to (2.5 billion) while corrections funding increased by $926 million to (2.6 billion). Around the country, from 1987 to 1995, general fund expenditures for prisons increased by 30%, while general fund expenditures for universities decreased by 18%. Dan Macallair, Vincent Schiraldi, and Khaled Taqi-Eddin. San Francisco, California: The Justice Policy Institute. 1998.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

The Commercialization of Justice
Article by Marlyce Nuzum, Eastern Michigan University, appearing originally in The Critical Criminologist v 8 #3 (Summer 1998) and available on Paul's Justice Page.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons
On any given day, 2.2 million people are incarcerated in the United States, and over the course of a year, many millions spend time in prison or jail. 750,000 men and women work in correctional facilities. The annual cost: more than 60 billion dollars. Yet within three years, 67 percent of former prisoners will be rearrested and 52 percent will be re-incarcerated. At this moment, the effectiveness of America's approach to corrections has the attention of policy makers at all levels of government and in both political parties. The Commission and its report, Confronting Confinement, make a unique contribution to this timely national discussion by connecting the most serious problems and abuses inside jails and prisons with the health and safety of our communities.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Community Corrections Funding
An issue paper by Karen Firestone, Senate Fiscal Agency analyst, October 1999. Additional titles can be found by browsing through the publications section of the Senate Fiscal Agency web site.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Comparative International Rates of Incarceration: An Examination of Causes and Trends
Presented to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights by Marc Mauer, Sentencing Project, 2003.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Confronting Confinement : A Report of the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons
John J. Gibbons, Nicholas de B. Katzenbach. New York : New York : Vera Institute of Justice, June 2006; Washington, D.C. : Commission on Safety and Abuse in America's Prisons, June 2006
A report on violence and abuse in U.S. jails and prisons, the broad impact of those problems on public safety and public health, and how correctional facilities nationwide can become safer and more effective. The report reflects the Commission's work over more than a year — an inquiry that featured four public hearings in cities around the country where nearly 100 people testified, visits to jails and prisons, conversations with people about their experience of life behind bars, discussions with current and former corrections officials and experts working outside the profession, and a thorough review of available research and data.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Corporate Corrections
Frequently asked questions and answers about private prisons by the Reason Public Policy Institute.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

The Corporate Prison: the Production of Crime and the Sale of Discipline
A paper written by KaryL Kristine Kicenski, George Mason University, 1998.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Correctional Association of New York : History
Provides excerpts from a Citizen Crusade for Prison Reform.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Correctional Boot Camps: A Tough Intermediate Sanction
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Correctional Boot Camps: Lessons From a Decade of Research (NCJ 197018)
This NIJ Research for Practice presents findings from 10 years of data analyzing whether boot camps are successful in reducing recidivism, prison populations, and operating costs. The report found that although boot camps generally had positive effects on the attitudes and behaviors of inmates during confinement, these changes did not translate into reduced recidivism. Programs were often too brief to exert a lasting effect on inmates released to the community and they lacked, as well, a strong treatment model or sufficient preparation for reentry into the community. Boot camps' efforts to achieve multiple goals contributed to conflicting results. For example, lengthening camps so that more treatment programs could be included, which reduced recidivism, also shortened the discount in time served and undercut lower prison bed costs.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Correctional Leadership Competencies for the 21st Century: Manager and Supervisor Levels
Highlights the types of support and leadership that sheriffs should provide to enable jail administrators to manage jails effectively. It includes information to help sheriffs address jail problems, manage liability issues, and improve operations. Not available from NCJRS. Call the NIC Information Center at 1-800-877-1461 for printed copies. (ACCN 020475) (348 pp.) (NIC)
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Correctional Management, Inc.
Correctional Management, Inc. provides service, expertise, and innovation to the community correctional field. In addition to training and consulting services, the corporation also provides criminal justice professionals with an excellent collection of web links broken out into the following categories: major criminal justice links, statistics and research, law and legal research, crimes against children, juvenile justice, drug abuse, domestic violence, victim issues, grants and grant writing, discussion groups, miscellaneous, and federal agencies.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Correctional Medical Services, Inc.
There have been 5 major exposes of the nation's largest "provider" of "medical" services to prisoners.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Correctional News Online
An online resource for Design, Construction, Management, and Operations. Welcome to Correctional News Online, the web site for Correctional Building News. Search our site for the most up-to-date information about the correctional building industry. We offer a free taste of our popular Correctional Building News' Construction Report in the Express Report, specifications and information about our Facility of the Month and our Product of the Month, and a downloadable Media Kit. Bookmark our page now so you can check back for updates.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Correctional Service Canada (English version)
Provides description of this federal agency, job information, and an extensive set of research publications related to the federal correctional program and Canadian corrections practitioners.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Correctional Service Canada Research Briefs and Reports
This series of publications by the Research Unit of Correctional Services of Canada has been coming out since 1989.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Corrections and Sentencing Law and Policy
UCLA law professor Sharon Dolovich and Washington University law professor Margo Schlanger are co-editors of a new Social Science Research Network journal, Corrections and Sentencing Law and Policy. Corrections and Sentencing Law and Policy Abstracts will provide a forum for works-in-progress, abstracts, and completed articles dealing with the broad range of doctrinal, theoretical, and policy issues relating to the punishment, sentencing, and re-entry of convicted criminal offenders. Topics include (but are not limited to) prison and jail conditions and life; prisoners' rights; probation, parole, and re-entry; prison and jail administration; imprisonment and diversionary sentencing, and the death penalty. The journal also invites submissions dealing with the implications of incarceration and other criminal punishments for families, communities, and society as a whole. Contributions from all disciplines are welcome, and scholars working in this area are encouraged to submit their work.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

The Corrections Connection
also known as Corrections.com
The Corrections Connection is the CENTRAL LOCATION on the Internet where all individuals, associations, organizations, institutions, agencies and companies which are associated with CORRECTIONS may come together to network, exchange information, ask questions, find out about announcements, services, products, research developments, upcoming shows, educational resources, career opportunities, and new technologies within the Corrections and Criminal Justice fields. It provides comprehensive directory listings for state, county, federal and international correctional agencies, as well as associations, products, services and online criminal justice websites PLUS . . . extensive networking opportunities for correctional Facilities, professionals, businesses, and students.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Corrections Corporation of America
Private sector provider of detention and corrections services to federal, state and local governments. Offers third party studies of prison privatization and links to other correctional resources.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Corrections entry from Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Vol. 1, 2002
In addition to some general commentary, this entry contains sections on : Probation, Famous Prisons, Incarceration, Boot Camp Prisons New Treatment: Prisoners And Animals, Parole, Community-based Corrections, and Women In Prison.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Corrections, Inc.
The nation's swelling inmate population has turned imprisonment into a $50 billion-a-year industry. Those who've prospered along the way include corporations, prison guard unions, and police agencies. American RadioWorks correspondent John Biewen examines how some of those with vested interests help to shape who gets locked up and for how long. American RadioWorks : the national documentary unit of Minnesota Public Radio, April 2002.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Corrections Privatization Generates Savings and Better Service
This report assesses Wisconsin's recent corrections system situation. Wisconsin's prison system began limited dealings with private prisons in 1998 and today has more than 20% of its inmate population managed out-of-state by a private management company. The report states that few leaders have led the change for increased corrections privatization due to expected strong opposition from labor unions and liberal interests. But the report states that, ironically, liberal interests could benefit from corrections privatization because funds freed up by privatization efficiencies would become available for spending in other areas, including education and social services programs. The report states that Wisconsin should revisit prison privatization with renewed interest. Marc C. Duff, Wisconsin Interest, Winter 2003, Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, Inc. - Wisconsin.
(Last checked 03/15/16)

Corrections Statistics (BJS)
Provides statistics, information about various surveys conducted, and links to actual reports. Categories include:

  • capital punishment
  • jails
  • prisons
  • probation and parole
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Corrections Today Archive
    Sponsored by the American Correctional Association. Provides a sampler of full text articles from the latest issue, as well as an extensive number of articles from past issues of the magazine.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Corrections Topical Collection from NIJ
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Crime and Justice Atlas 2000
    The Atlas includes updated data on state and national trends in crime, sentencing and corrections, a series of graphs depicting long-term (30-100 year) trends in crime and sentencing, along with a series of policy papers on a variety of topics written by experts in sentencing and corrections. Articles include: Impact of Truth-in-Sentencing and Three Strikes Legislation on Crime by Susan Turner; Health Care Needs of Prison and Jail Inmates by Theordor M. Hammett; Mentally Ill Behind Bars by Christine Sigurdson; Restorative Justice and the Woman Offender by Sheryl Ramstad Hvass; Managing Sex Offenders by Kim English; Case Management/Aftercare in Juvenile Corrections by Alton L. Lick; What Future for Community Corrections? by Michael E. Smith. Prepared by the Justice Research and Statistics Association for the U.S. Department of Justice.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Crime and Punishment : A Tenuous Link
    Campus Access
    Off-Campus Access for MSU Students : Type in title in quick search box.
    There are twice as many people in prison today as there were in 1980. The nation's prisons are filled beyond capacity, and pressures are mounting to build more. But the cost is enormous, and many criminologists say putting more people in jail may not be a very effective way to fight crime. After all, despite this decade's apparent crackdown, crime still seems to be out of control. Sarah Glazer, Editorial Research Reports via CQ Researcher Archive, October 20, 1989.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Crunching Numbers: Crime and Incarceration at the End of the Millennium
    This article from the January edition of the National Institute of Justice Journal summarizes, in eight packed pages, significant data on crime and punishment in America over the course of the last century, with emphasis on the last few decades. Among other things, the report examines the recent decline in property crimes comparing figures to other countries, discusses the apparent drop in incidents of rape, and looks at the possible correlations between incarceration rates and crime levels -- all in a readable style with many useful graphs and in a manner that avoids simplistic conclusions. The article's author is Jan M. Chaiken, Director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS).
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Culture of Prison Sexual Violence
    This study found that: male and female inmates reported that prison rape did not occur often; inmates "self-police" their own community in an effort to maintain peace and social order; inmates reported culturally prescribed social arrangements that facilitate physical safety and provide social and emotional support; inmate sexual culture allows for disagreement on inmates' judgment of an act of sexual violence as coercive or rape; prison inmates judge prison rape as detrimental to inmates' social order; and while men's and women's prisons display distinctions in social arrangements and overt social behavior, they share underlying cultural beliefs, values, and norms on the nature of sexuality and sexual violence. Results showed that inmates' lack of confidence in institution protection may be linked to many conditions affecting low confidence in institution safety; inmate debts lead to violence; inmates have a low confidence in institution transfers as a means to prevent or intervene on situations of sexual pressure; and that protective custody falls short of creating inmate confidence in institutional safety. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of data both confirmed previous knowledge of inmates shared common cultural rules and brings new understanding of social-sexual behavior. Whether inmates determine that a sex act was consensual or forced rests on subjective perceptions of the causes of the act and the response of the victim toward the assailant. Inmates judge prison rapists as dangerous and victims as too weak to protect themselves. Practical innovations to prison rape prevention, such as security cameras, may provide greater inmate safety and inmates would benefit from an officially sponsored orientation to the realities of prison inmate culture. The study included 564 inmate volunteers (408 men and 156 women) from 30 prisons in 10 States. Mark S Fleisher ; Jessie L Krienert. November 2006.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Curious Punishments of Bygone Days
    Alice Morse Earle, 1896, reflects on punishment practices in colonial America. Still available thanks to the Internet Archives.
    Also available as book in the MSU Main Library
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Current Issues in the Operation of Women's Prisons
    Reviews the status of issues such as gender of staff working in women's prisons, policies and programs for women offenders, and availability of specialized staff training and provides a list of North American institutions for female inmates. National Institute of Corrections Information Center, 1998. 17 pp. Accession no. 014784
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Cutting Correctly: New Prison Policies for Times of Fiscal Crisis
    Judith Greene and Vincent Schiraldi. Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. During the 1990's, corrections constituted one of the fastest growing line items in state budgets. On average, corrections consumed 7 percent of state budgets in 2000. Today, it is costing states, counties and the federal government nearly $40 billion to imprison approximately two million state and local inmates, up from $5 billion in combined prison and jail expenditures in 1978. Twenty-four billion of that was spent on the incarceration of nonviolent offenders. Despite the modest recent decline in state prison populations, the massive growth in state prisoners over the past two decades has meant that one out of every 14 general fund dollars spent in 2000 was spent on prisons. While state government officials may have felt they could afford incarceration largess during the boom years of the 1990's, state budgets are now groaning under the weight of the recent recession compounded by the revenue loss associated with the September 11 terrorist attacks. Some states around the country have already responded with prison closures and/or downsizing: for example, since the recession began, Republican governors in four states have decided to close prisons. In the face of severe state budget shortfalls, Cutting Correctly lays out for state policy makers, strategies and approaches that can reduce corrections spending without jeopardizing public safety.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities
    Rather than promoting public safety, detention — the pretrial “jailing” of youth not yet found delinquent — may contribute to future offenses. Studies from around the country show that incarcerated youth have higher recidivism rates than youth supervised in other kinds of settings. Justice Policy Institute, 2006. Cataloged.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Deadly Custody
    Still available on microfilm in the MSU Libraries
    At least 55 prisoners have died in metro Detroit jails and lockups since 1998, many from medical neglect, foreseeable suicides and other suspicious circumstances, a Free Press investigation has found. Most died of physical ailments. Many hanged themselves with sheets, blankets, socks or whatever they could fashion into a noose. Questionable deaths in Wayne, Oakland and Macomb counties prompted 17 lawsuits that have cost taxpayers nearly $5 million, as well as increases in insurance premiums for some communities. Free Press investigation, August 24, 2001
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Desktop Guide to Good Juvenile Detention Practice

    October 1996. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Diminishing Returns: Crime and Incarceration in the 1990s
    Article by Jennie Gainsborough and Marc Mauer, Sentencing Project, September 2000.
    Also listed under Sentencing.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Distorted Priorities: Drug Offenders in State Prisons
    Ryan S. King and Marc Maur. The Sentencing Project. September 2002.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Does Parole Work?: Analyzing the Impact of Postprison Supervision on Rearrest Outcomes
    The number of Americans on parole has risen along with the U.S. prison population, swelling from 197,000 in 1980 to 774,000 in 2003. But is conditional release, with the supervision it entails, worth the trouble and expense? This question was addressed in a recent Urban Institute report, which compared rates of recidivism among ex-convicts who were paroled with those among ex-convicts who were released with no strings attached. The study found that the recidivism rate among prisoners released unconditionally was virtually the same as that among "mandatory parolees," or prisoners for whom parole is part of a fixed sentence: 62 percent of the former and 61 percent of the latter were re-arrested at least once within two years. "Discretionary parolees," or prisoners released early after being vetted by a parole board, might be expected to do considerably better than others, having met various criteria before release. But they fared just slightly better: 54 percent were re-arrested within two years. Overall, parole is most effective in reducing recidivism rates among female prisoners, prisoners with few prior arrests, and those arrested for technical offenses or for violating public order. Among the largest category of released prisoners -- males who have committed property, drug, or violent crimes -- "the public safety impact of supervision is ... nonexistent," the authors write, adding that the current parole system "serves little purpose apart from providing false comfort." Urban Institute. March 2005, 20pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Drain of Public Prison Systems and the Role of Privatization: A Case Study of State Correctional Systems
    David W. Miller, Proquest Discovery Guide, ,released February 2010.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Drug Detection in Prison Mailrooms
    Despite the highly supervised environment, prisons face a pervasive problem of the use of illicit drugs by inmates. The common entry point for illicit drugs in prison is the mailroom where several thousand pieces of mail pass through daily. To improve mailroom drug screening, the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice sponsored a study to examine whether commercially available drug detection systems could be successful in prison mailrooms. The study included an examination of mailroom operations and processes at the U.S. Penitentiary in Leavenworth, KS, a survey of available detection technologies, and a laboratory-based evaluation of several technologies (i.e. desktop ion mobility spectrometers (IMS), handheld IMS, chemical spray, and X-ray machines) at Thunder Mountain Evaluation Center in Arizona in the detection of six drugs of interest (marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, ecstasy, and LSD). Results of the study indicated that x-ray could find relatively small amounts of drugs in mail, trace detection systems had high false alarm rates, and items mailed through the postal system did not pick up substantial amounts of drug contamination. Overall, results concluded that IMS was the technology most likely to enhance mailroom drug screening effectiveness. Study limitations are presented and discussed. National Institute of Justice. 4pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Education & incarceration
    Report examines the U.S. states' efforts to close budget gaps while continuing to fund high-quality education as well as correctional institutions. The report concludes that the financial costs of prisons obscures the massive social costs these policy choices have in specific communities. Bruce Western, Vincent Schiraldi, & Jason Ziedenberg. Washington, D.C. : Justice Policy Institute, 2003.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Emerging Issues of Privatized Prisons
    One of the most daunting challenges confronting our criminal justice system today is the overcrowding of our nation's prisons. One proposed solution that emerged was the privatizing of prisons and jails by contracting out, in part or in whole, their operations. To explore the issues pertaining to the privatization of prisons, BJA funded a nationwide study that has resulted in this monograph. The study resulted in some interesting conclusions. It is hoped that this monograph will prove enlightening to those involved with the issue of privatized prisons and promote a greater discussion about it.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Entrepreneurial Corrections: Incarceration As A Business Opportunity
    Chapter by Judith A. Greene appearing in the book Invisible Punishment (New Press, 2002).
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Counseling and Student Services
    Virtual Library Reading Room
    Juvenile Boot Camps

    Still available thanks to the Internet Archives.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Evaluating the Effectiveness of Supermax Prisons
    This 89-page report assesses the effectiveness of Supermax prisons in the US. Daniel P. Mears, Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, March 2006.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Extent, History, and Role of Private Companies in the Delivery of Correctional Services in the United States
    Article by Geoffrey F. Segal, Reason Institute, November 2002.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Also called Family and Corrections Network
    Since 1983 the Family and Corrections Network has provided ways for those concerned with families of offenders to share information and experiences in an atmosphere of mutual respect. We have done this through publishing, sponsoring conferences, liaison with other agencies, presentations, and consultation. We have published information on children of prisoners, parenting programs for prisoners, prison visiting, incarcerated fathers, hospitality programs and a variety of other topics. We are a low overhead, volunteer organization. We are proud of our history as the first national organization in the United States focused on families of offenders. This new web site is the Family and Corrections Network's latest effort to inform, support and empower families of offenders and their supporters.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Federal Bureau of Prisons
    Federal Inmate Locator
    Index of current and past federal inmates online! Goes back to 1982.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Federal Bureau of Prisons Library
    Provides information about the library, its archives, the periodicals it receives, and a searchable library catalog.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Fiscal Lockdown
    Note: Type in title of journal (Dollar & Sense) and follow options. Access restricted to Proquest Library subscribers.
    Facing their most serious revenue shortfall in generations, states are slashing spending on nearly everything, including prisons. Will these cuts weaken the prison-industrial complex or strengthen it? Source: Dollar & Sense, July-August, 2003, by Julie Falk.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Foreign Nationals in Michigan Prisons : An Examination of the Costs
    If it costs $30,000 a year to house an inmate, shouldn't the Michigan Department of Corrections explore deporting foreign inmates? Lansing, MI : Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending, April 2006 (12 pages).
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    A Fork in the Road: Build More Prisons or Develop New Strategies to Deal with Offenders? (Symposium)

    Law enforcement experts and key policy makers from throughout the nation gathered on Southern Illinois University's Carbondale campus last October to address a set of major questions facing the federal government and state goverernments throughout the nation: Can we stop the costly proliferation of prisons across our country without compromising public safety? Are there more effective and efficient options, particularly for nonviolent offenders? Can we reduce dramatically the number of repeat offenders, both adult and juvenile, by doing a better job of monitoring them and providing services in their communities to the thousands and thousands of law violators released from our prisons every year? Southern Illinois University Law Journal, Carbondale, Illinois, Volume 23, Issue 2, Winter 1999 issue.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    From Classrooms to Cell Blocks:
    A National Perspective
    America is undergoing a national crisis. Current policies are already in place which force state legislatures to decrease higher education and other social service expenditures in order to fund costly and ineffective prison expansion. According to the Campaign for an Effective Crime Policy, every dollar in the $30 billion Crime Bill will cost states $3 to $5 ($90 to $150 billion) in expenditures. If these criminal justice policies continue, many states will be forced to spend most of the newly proposed $51 billion education fund on corrections rather than education. The latest proposed tax incentive for education, America's HOPE Scholarship, will be useless to taxpayers if current criminal justice policies persist. Americans will soon be forced to spend their tax-free education funds on an ineffective, costly criminal justice system.
    Who would ever imagine that a baccalaureate degree is no longer one of the highest priorities of our elected officials? Who would ever imagine that America, the country of freedom and opportunity, would be trading classrooms for cell blocks? It seems like such a foreign concept to most Americans. Unfortunately, this foreign concept is becoming more and more domesticated in many states. Tara-Jen Ambrosio and Vincent Schiraldi. From Classrooms to Cellblocks: A National Perspective. Washington DC: The Justice Policy Institute. 1997.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    From Prison to Home - The Dimensions and Consequences of Prisoner Reentry
    About 600,000 individuals - roughly 1,600 a day - will be released from state and federal prisons this year to return to their communities. On one level, this transition from prison to community might be viewed as unremarkable. Ever since prisons were built, individuals have faced the challenges of moving from confinement in correctional institutions to liberty on the street. Jeremy Travis, Amy L. Solomon, and Michelle Waul, Urban Institute, June 01, 2001.
    Also cataloged for Magic.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Global Bibliography of Prison Systems, Version 2.0
    Philip L. Reichel, Professor of Sociology at the University of Northern Colorado, initially compiled the Global Bibliography of Prison Systems (GBOPS), Version 1.0 as a sabbatical project at the United Nations Centre For International Crime Prevention. The GBOPS provides criminal justice scholars and practitioners with a comprehensive resource for locating information about international prison systems. Version 1.0 of the GBOPS includes 615 citations representing 113 countries. Some citations are annotated, and most citations range from 1985 to 1998. Last revised February 10, 2000.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Glossary of Corrections Terminology (Michigan)
    Many of these definitions are courtesy of the Michigan Department of Corrections or the Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending. Professional Probation and Parole Consulting, Inc.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Going Up the River: Travels in a Prison Nation (Book Review)
    http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0375502637/ qid=1012395034/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_14_1/102-1553103-4736150
    Available in the MSU Main Library Stacks
    If crime rates are dropping, why is the number of prisons growing rapidly? What are the cause and implications of the "prison boom"? Hallinan, winner of a Pulitzer Prize and Harvard's prestigious Nieman Fellowship, delivers a clear-eyed, sleekly written and deeply disturbing tour of the privatized prison landscape of America circa 2000, with a welcome (if unnerving) focus on the human aspect of maximum incarceration. "The merger of punishment and profit [is] reshaping this country," he argues.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Guide for Developing Housing for Ex-Offenders
    The Office of Justice Programs organized a focus group of corrections and housing officials to identify innovative ways to provide housing for ex-offenders. The result is a 36 page Guide for Developing Housing for Ex-Offenders" (NCJ 203374), which was published in May, 2004. The document describes the problem, covers key issues jurisdictions will face in developing solutions, gives tips on program design, operation and funding, and provides case studies of programs deemed to be successful models.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Guide to Preparing for and Responding to Prison Emergencies
    The goals of this guide, which was funded by the national institute of Corrections and National Institute of Justice, are simple but important. It is hoped that the guide will result in improved prevention efforts, planning, and response, so that some emergencies may be averted entirely and others may be mitigated. If this guide helps prevent violence in just a few locations and if it minimizes injuries, deaths, or escapes during just a few prison crises, then it will have fully satisfied its objectives. Jeffrey A. Schwartz, Ph.D. and Cynthia Barry, Ph.D. LETRA, Inc.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Guide to the Technologies of Concealed Weapon and Contraband Imaging and Detection
    Describes the operation, limitations, technology and applicability of the concealed weapon and contraband imaging and detection system for corrections personnel and other potential users. NCJ 184432.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Hand-Held Metal Detectors for Use in Concealed Weapon and Contraband Detection
    Establishes performance requirements for and testing methods of handheld metal detectors used to find weapons and contraband carried on a person or concealed by a non-metal object. NCJ 183470.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Health Status of Soon-to-be-Released Inmates
    Volume 1 : https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/189735.pdf
    Volume 2 : https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/189736.pdf
    Prisons and jails offer a unique opportunity to establish better disease control in the community by providing improved health care and disease prevention to inmates before they are released. A series of papers (summarized in Volume 1 and provided in full in Volume 2) documents indisputably that tens of thousands of inmates are being released into the community every year with undiagnosed or untreated communicable disease, chronic disease and mental illness. The research also shows that not only would it be cost effective to treat several of these diseases while the individuals are incarcerated, but in several instances it would even save money in the long run.
    "The Health Status of Soon-to-Be-Released Inmates" offers a sobering view of the corrections system, which has clearly become a major conduit for infectious disease. The rate of transmission for sexually transmittable disease behind bars is roughly 10 times that in the world outside. In any given year, 17 percent of people with AIDS, 35 percent of people with tuberculosis and nearly a third of those with hepatitis C pass through the corrections system.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The High Cost of Denying Parole: An Analysis of Prisoners Eligible for Release
    Lansing, MI : Citizens Alliance on Prisons and Public Spending, November 2003. 60pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    High-Risk and Special Management Prisoners
    "Effective Prison Mental Health Services: Guidelines To Expand and Improve Treatment" (93 pp.) (ACCN 018604) presents survey results on historical, legal, and ethical issues in dealing with mental illness in the field of corrections. (NIC)
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Hispanic Prisoners in the United States
    Sentencing Project. August 2003.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    History of the Federal Parole System
    An updated report by Peter B. Hoffman, U.S. Parole Commission, May 2003. 87pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Hospice and Palliative Care In Prisons
    Reports that nearly half of U.S. correctional agencies are currently employing a formal hospice model in providing care to terminally ill inmates, are actively implementing such a program, or are considering taking that step. Explores issues in operating hospice programs and discusses advantages and difficulties encountered by the agencies that have implemented them. National Institute of Corrections Information Center, 1998. 11 pp. Accession no. 014785.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    How to Locate a Federal Inmate
    Also called Federal Inmate Locator
    Information supplied by the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    How Prison Works
    As an abstract term, prison is quite simple, but for anyone who has ever done time, it's incredibly complex. Learn what life is like inside prisons in the United States. An article by Ed Grabianowski in How Stuff Works.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Incarceration and Its Costs In Michigan
    Lindsay Hollander, May 2007
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Incarceration Issues from the Sentencing Project
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Incarceration of Youth Who are Waiting for Community Mental Health Services in the United States
    Democratic Minority report states that 15,000 children with psychiatric disorders were improperly incarcerated in 2003 because no mental health services were available. U.S. House Committee on Government Reform, Minority Staff Special Investigations Division. July 2004. 19pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Inmates Are Free to Practice Black Supremacist Religion, Judge Rules
    Until two weeks ago, Intelligent Tarref Allah, a 27-year-old Brooklyn native convicted of murder in 1995, was just a gang member in prison asking for special treatment. For years, New York State prison officials would not allow Mr. Allah - who is known to inmates and guards by his new legal first name, Intelligent, or Intel - to openly practice what he describes as his religion, central tenets of which encourage self-analysis, meditation and a black supremacist message. Mr. Allah is a Five Percenter, part of a black militant group that broke from the Nation of Islam in the 1960's. The New York State prison system has long regarded it as a violence-prone gang, much as the system also regards the Latin Kings, Crips or the Aryan Brotherhood. Source: Paul von Zielbauer, New York Times, August 18, 2003.
    Also listed under Gangs.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Inmates May Have It Right -- Prisons All About Jobs
    Still available on microfilm in the MSU Libraries
    Many prison inmates swear the building boom in the penal system is a master plan to make money off them and create jobs, especially in the rural, mostly white areas where most prisons are. Plenty of inmates have told me this over the years.
    If this prison-industrial complex sounds like a whack conspiracy theory, listen to Michigan state legislators. Republicans and Democrats have been beefing over whether to close a youth prison in Baldwin or the Newberry Correctional Facility in the Upper Peninsula. The debate isn't about which institution is best for rehabilitation, restitution or public safety -- it's about jobs. When the fight's over, legislators might stick the state with an $18-million-a-year tab for a prison it doesn't need.
    With nearly 50,000 people in state prisons, Michigan has one of the nation's highest rates of incarceration and prison spending. Prisons eat up nearly 20% of the state's general fund, or $1.8 billion. Other states have found ways to safely spend a lot less on locking people up.
    Corrections has started to control prison population and spending, after two decades of breakneck growth. It has diverted more offenders into community programs, developed programs to reduce recidivism and sent fewer parolees back to prison for technical violations. Michigan was one of the few states to reduce its prison population, if only slightly, in 2003 and 2004. Jeff Gerritt, Detroit Free Press, August 16, 2005.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Inside Rikers : Stories from the World's Largest Penal Colony (Book Review)
    http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0312261799/ ref=ase_prisonzoneA/102-1553103-4736150
    Available in the MSU Library Main Stacks
    Rikers Island penal colony is a world unto itself, with its own power plant, schools, hospital, even a tailor. But the 16,000 people forced to live there, unlike free worlders, are "usually known by their single worst deed." So writes Jennifer Wynn, who has spent the last decade getting beyond those deeds and helping inmates turn their untapped talents into new lives. Wynn first entered Rikers Island as a reporter, returned to teach in a rehabilitation program called Fresh Start, and ultimately became the program's director. Though she has left journalism as a career, this powerful debut puts her in the best tradition of activist journalism. Unlike most criminologists, she understands that the best way to make a point is to show rather than tell. By interlacing statistics with moving stories of Rikers' inmates, she makes clear the arguments for prison--and social--reform.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Intensive After-Care for High Risk Juveniles: A Community Care Model
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Intensive After-Care for High Risk Juveniles: Policies and Procedures
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    International Centre for Prison Studies
    Located at Kings College (London)
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    International Perspectives on Correctional Privatization: A Selected Bibliography

    Last revised November 23, 1996.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Interrelationship Between Public and Private Prisons:
    Does the existence of prisoners under private management affect the rate
    of growth in expenditures on prisoners under public management”

    In this study the Vanderbilt University researchers, including a professor of law and a graduate school professor of economics, concluded that between 1999-2001 – the years for which the most accurate data is available – states that utilized private prisons had considerably more success in keeping public corrections spending under control than states with no private prisons. The existence of prisoners under private management in a state resulted in reduced growth in daily costs for the public corrections system by 8.9%, about 4.45% per year (1999-2000 and 2000-2001 budget cycles). In 2001, the average Department of Corrections expenditures in states without private prisoners were approximately $445 million. If the “average” state in that group were to introduce private prisons to some extent, the potential savings for one year in the Department of Corrections could be approximately $20 million in the public system’s operating costs alone. James F. Blumstein and Mark A. Cohen. April 2003.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Introducing Women Into Michigan's Correctional System: A Conversation About Changing Culture
    web link
    Note: access restricted to MSU faculty, students, and subscribers.
    Like many organizations in the 1970s, Michigan's Department of Corrections was primarily white and male. During that time, director Perry Johnson decided to change that through a process of affirmative intervention. It was clear to him that he needed all the good people he could get to manage a rapidly expanding system, so the addition of women and minorities was not only ethically required but practical.1 This article's authors, among other individuals, were instrumental in implementing Johnson's vision for women. The following describes their experiences in the context of culture change related to the entry of women into Michigan's state correctional system. Article by Luella Burke, Corrections Today, October 1 2005.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Is Maryland's System of Higher Education Suffering Because of Prison Expenditures?
    Ross Jamison. Justice Policy Institute. 2003.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Jail Crowding: Understanding Jail Population Dynamics
    This report on jail crowding was developed to assist local government officials in conducting effective criminal justice system oversight. It assumes that citizens, although generally unfamiliar with jails and the criminal justice system, are entitled to efficient, effective, and responsive government services. The ever-increasing demand for jail space, however, has contributed to persistent jail crowding, even as counties move to construct new jail beds. A solid knowledge base that explains how a jail population can grow despite decreases in both serious crime and the most criminogenic portion of the population (young adults) is a prerequisite for assessing future jail needs. The report explores how to identify factors related to jail crowding; presents questions that will clarify the evolution of jail bed space demands; examines the trends that are driving jail population growth; and discusses forecasting to meet future needs. Appendices include: "Preventing Jail Crowding: A Practical guide," by Robert Cushman; and "Alleviating Jail Crowding: A Systemic Approach," a transcript of a videoconference by the National Institute of Corrections. Mark. A. Cunniff. National Institute of Corrections. 2002. 49pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Jail Planning and Expansion: Local Officials and Their Roles
    This document describes a process to help communities, elected officials, and their policymakers plan and construct new jails and major expansions of existing jails. The process, involving 16 separate "steps" with five overlapping phases of activity, outlines all participants' roles, the decisions they make, and the products they create. The phases incorporate both concurrent and consecutive activities such as pre-architectural planning, site selection and planning, architectural and engineering design, construction, and occupancy. The discussion of each of the 16 steps lists major work activities and products developed. Tables exhibit the tasks to be performed for each step, which participants perform them, and what actions participants take throughout the process. Also includes exhibits and a bibliography. James R. Robertson, National Institute of Corrections, January 2003.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Jailing Juveniles: The Dangers of Incarcerating Youth in Adult Jails in America
    web link
    Provides a summary of the risks that youth face when incarcerated in adult jails, data on youth incarcerated in U.S. jails, and a review of federal and state laws regarding youth in jails. (OJJDP)
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Jailing the Mentally Ill
    Why are so many mentally ill Americans behind bars? American RadioWorks : the national documentary unit of Minnesota Public Radio, July 2000.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Journal of Prisoners on Prisons
    A prisoner written, academically-oriented journal based on the tradition of the Penal Press. The purpose of this journal is "to bring the knowledge and experience of the incarcerated to bear upon more academic arguments and concerns and to inform public discourse about the current state of our carceral institutions." (Gaucher, R., Summer 1988, p. 54) This endeavour is particularly important because with few exceptions, articles on crime and punishment are written by criminologists, sociologists, journalists, and workers in the criminal justice system who often present incomplete views of the reality of imprisonment which, in turn, justify increasingly repressive and reactionary penal policies and practices. Contemporary research is helping us to understand the function of prisons in modern society; however, this research requires the insight and analysis of people for whom imprisonment is or has been the reality of their daily existence. At present the full text of the first two volumes are available as well as table of contents from subsequent issues. The webmasters are working on adding the full text of later volumes as well. The web site also provides links to prison writing, arts, and culture sites. [Also listed under Periodicals]
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Juvenile Boot Camps and Military Structured Youth Programs
    The Koch Criminal Institute is providing this March 2000 directory as a pdf document. It contains descriptions of more than 75 juvenile boot camps and military structured programs in the U.S.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Juvenile Boot Camps: Cost & Effectiveness vs Residential Facilities

    Report by Brent Zaehringer, Kock Crime Institute, July 1998.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Juvenile Boot Camps: Lessons Learned
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Juvenile Correctional Education: A Time for Change
    October 1994. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Juvenile Delinquents in the Federal Criminal System
    Describes juvenile offenders processed in the Federal criminal justice system, including the number of juveniles charged with acts of delinquency, the offenses for which they were charged, the proportion adjudicated delinquent, and the sanctions imposed. January 1997.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Juvenile Probation: The Workhorse of the Juvenile Justice System
    March 1996.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Juveniles in Adult Prisons and Jails: A National Assessment


    October 2002.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    King's College London
    International Centre for Prison Studies
    The International Centre for Prison Studies seeks to assist governments and other relevant agencies to develop appropriate policies on prisons and the use of imprisonment. It carries out its work on a project or consultancy basis for international agencies, governmental and non-governmental organisations. Web site contains policy briefs related to the United Kingdom and other parts of the world. Also publishes Punishment and Society: the international journal of penology.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Koch Crime Institute
    Documents on Boot Camps

    Compilation of resources on boot camps.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison
    This Special Report presents lifetime chances of going to State or Federal prison by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Using standard demographic lifetable techniques, and assuming that recent incarceration rates remain unchanged, an estimated 1 of every 20 persons (5%) can be expected to serve time in prison during their lifetime. The lifetime chances of a person going to prison are higher for men (9%) than for women (1%) and higher for blacks (16%) and Hispanics (9%) than for whites (2%). At current levels of incarceration newborn black males in this country have a greater than a 1 in 4 chance of going to prison during their lifetimes, while Hispanic males have a 1 in 6 chance, and white males have a 1 in 23 chance of serving time. 3/97 NCJ 160092
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Lock In Savings With Prison Privatization
    The Michigan Privatization Report gives an overview of all the benefits of including a significant percentage of privatized corrections management into a state’s corrections system. The Michigan Department of Corrections, utilizing a total operating budget of $1.7 billion, operates 42 prisons and 11 camps including one private corrections facility that saves the state between an estimated $6,975 and $19,125 a day or between $2.5 million and $6.9 million annually. Michigan will see a budget deficit in the next fiscal year of $1.8 million, largely due to economic shortfalls. Using Michigan’s one private facility as a model of future opportunities, outsourcing a portion of the criminal justice system could save taxpayers millions while improving services. Lawrence Reed and John La Plante, Michigan Privatization Report, Winter 2003, Mackinac Center for Public Policy - Michigan.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Lockdown America : Police and Prisons in the Age of Crisis (Book).
    Christian Parenti, Verso Books, September 1999. Available in the MSU Main Library stacks.
    A critical look at criminal justice policies in the past three decades, as played out in policing strategies and equipment and the imprisonment frenzy.

    Managing Prison Growth in North Carolina Through Structured Sentencing
    North Carolina has devised an innovative program that limits prison population growth and increases the time served for serious felonies. The NIJ Program Focus, "Managing Prison Growth in North Carolina Through Structured Sentencing," details how the North Carolina General Assembly and the State's Sentencing and Policy Advisory Commission use community corrections, intermediate sanctions, and mandatory sentencing to punish serious offenders and slow the growth of the State's prison population. NCJ168944.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Mental Health Screens for Corrections
    This National Institute of Justice report provides information on two projects designed to create and validate mental health screening instruments that corrections staff can use during intake. Included in the report are questionnaires that accurately identify inmates who require mental health interventions. By Julian Ford and Robert L. Trestman; and Fred Osher, Jack E. Scott, Henry J. Steadman, and Pamela Clark Robbins. 24 pages; PDF.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Mental Health Treatment in State Prisons, 2000
    Reports on facility policies related to screening of inmates at intake, conducting psychiatric or psychological evaluations, and providing treatment (including 24-hour mental health care, therapy/counseling, and use of psychotropic medications) in State prisons. This report is based on the 2000 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, which gathered data from 1,668 separate institutions. It provides state-by-state tabulations of facility policies and counts of inmates by type of treatment, and by facility characteristics.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Michigan Offender Tracking Information System (OTIS)
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Michigan Special Alternative Incarceration (Boot Camp) Program
    The Special Alternative Incarceration program (SAI), or boot camp, began in 1988 as an alternative to prison for male probationers selected by courts. In l992 the program was expanded to include both male and female prisoners and probationers. The first 90 days of the program involves a highly disciplined regimen, rather like a military boot camp, coupled with hard work and other rehabilitative programming, including secondary education programming and substance-abuse treatment. This phase is followed by intensive supervision in a community. The goal is to keep selected, lower-risk probationers from going to prison and to take qualified prisoners out of the traditional prison setting and place them in a more economical setting. Web site includes 2000 annual report.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Michigan State Appellate Defender Office's Criminal Defense Online
    The State Appellate Defender Office's Legal Resources Project has been serving Michigan's criminal defense community since 1977, offering a variety of useful publications, on-line services, and advice to attorneys. SADO is a state agency representing indigent criminal appellants; its collective legal expertise and resources are shared with attorneys through the LRP.
    The SADO web site provides useful information such as mailing addresses for County Jails in Michigan, Corrections Centers, Prisons, Federal Prisons, County Prosecutors, Circuit Courts, and Appellate Courts. There is also a section on "How to find Criminal Defense Attorneys" and a section providing bulletin and newsletter information on criminal law developments.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Michigan Task Force on Jail and Prison Overcrowding
    "Members of the task force have worked diligently reviewing the capacity concerns of the state's prisons and jails and have developed strategies for a more effective and efficient utilization of jail and prison resources without compromising public safety", Granholm said. "I appreciate their efforts and am anxious to review the task force's solutions to Michigan's incarceration issues." April 21, 2005.
    (Last checked 03/15/16

    MIS Systems in State Prisons
    This publication present results of a survey that focused on information systems used for offender management in state departments of corrections. Dec. 1999. 17pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    More Prisons? Sentencing Discretion Can be an Effective Option
    Still available in the MSU Libraries on microfilm
    An editiorial from the November 15, 1997 Detroit Free Press.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Multisite Evaluation of Shock Incarceration
    September 1994.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    National Center on Institutions & Alternatives
    The National Center on Institutions and Alternatives (NCIA) is based in Alexandria, Virginia, and has been on the cutting edge of criminal justice reform in the United States since its founding in 1977. With a full-time staff of approximately 200, NCIA is a private, nonprofit agency providing training, technical assistance, research and direct services to criminal justice, social services, and mental health organizations and clients across the country. Serves as a clearinghouse on decarceration. Sponsors

  • What every American should know about the criminal justice system
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    National Institute of Corrections (NIC)
    Provides details on NIC's history, mission and goals, past years' accomplishments, organizational structures and divisions, services and projects, and job opportunities. One of NIC's primary functions is to develop and disseminate information and materials for practitioners in corrections. Over the years, NIC has published numerous documents in the areas of:

  • General Interest.
  • Institutional Management and Operation.
  • Jail Operations.
  • Special Offender Management.
  • Substance-Abusing Offenders.
  • Female Offenders.
  • Health Care.
  • Probation and Parole.
  • Community-Based Programs and Services.
    Most of these publications are available here.
    Also note the search engine.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    National Mental Health Association
    Factsheet: Juvenile Boot Camps

    Clearly, the idea of "shock incarceration" as a tough, low-cost alternative to more intensive juvenile justice programming has not been borne out by our 15 years of experience with boot camps across the country.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    A National Study Comparing the Environments of Boot Camps with Traditional Facilities for Juvenile Offenders
    Depsite their growth in popularity in the 1990s, correctional boot camps remain controversial. Critics questions whether their military style methods are appropriate to managing and treating juvenile delinquents and positively affecting juvenile behavior while they are confined and after their release. Boot camp advocates contend that the facilities' program structure gives staff more control over the participants and provides the juveniles with a safer environment than traditional facilities. NCJ187680 compares 27 boot camps with 22 more traditional facilities by measuring components of the institutional environment in each setting and their role in treatment. Doris Layton McKenzie et al. August 2001. 12pp. (NIJ)
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    New Approaches to Staff Safety
    This document assists community corrections practitioners in evaluating training needs related to officer safety, including staff safety training principles and current concepts and standards. Hazardous duty situations are described in order to help agencies design their training around facts rather than rumor and unsupported opinion. Using these tools, agencies can better determine their respective training needs, evaluate the most current information in various safety training areas, and explore a variety of information and resources to assist in obtaining training and/or developing their own training programs. Includes appendices and exhibits. Robert L. Thornton, National Institute of Corrections, 2nd edition, March 2003.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Nursery Program Aids Jailed Moms in Four States
    A small but growing number of states are using a new tool to keep women prison inmates from committing more crimes – motherhood. In Ohio, Nebraska, New York and Washington, some women who give birth behind bars are allowed to keep their babies instead of giving up the child to a foster agency or a relative, as other states require. The programs appear to be helping women clean up their lives, although officials haven’t conducted major recidivism studies yet. Article by Dave Ghose, Special to Stateline.org, Sept. 24, 2002.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Offender Reentry
    Prisoner reentry is the transition from life in jail or prison to life in the community. More than 97 percent of all U.S. prisoners are eventually released, and communities are absorbing nearly 650,000 released offenders annually. NIJ’s Reentry Web page summarizes research about the effectiveness of reentry programs, which are intended to increase public safety and reduce offender recidivism by providing services to help offenders reintegrate into society. NIJ is funding a long-term evaluation of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI), a major program at 69 sites around the Nation. Although it is too early for definitive results, early findings are mixed.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Officer Duress Systems in Correctional Facilities
    A duress system helps corrections facilities respond quickly and effectively to assaults on staff and other emergencies. Find out how to identify, select, and deploy the system that best suits your facility’s needs.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    One in 31 : The Long Reach of American Corrections
    Explosive growth in the number of people on probation or parole has propelled the population of the American corrections system to more than 7.3 million, or 1 in every 31 U.S. adults, according to this new report. Pew Center on the States, March 2, 2009.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008
    A new report by Pew's Public Safety Performance Project details how, for the first time in history, more than one in every 100 adults in America are in jail or prison—a fact that significantly impacts state budgets without delivering a clear return on public safety. Pew Center on the States, February 2008.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Penal Reform International
    Penal Reform International is an international non-governmental organisation working on penal and criminal justice reform worldwide. PRI has regional programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the South Caucasus and North America. We have also worked with partner organisations in South Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Penny-Wise & Pound Foolish: Assaultive offender programming and Michigan's prison costs
    Citizens Alliance on Prisons & Public Spending, April 2005.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Pennsylvania Prison Society
    Founded in 1787, The Pennsylvania Prison Society is a social justice organization that advocates on behalf of prisoners, formerly incarcerated individuals and their families. Headquartered in Philadelphia, The Pennsylvania Prison Society operates through a network of statewide chapters. Produces electronic newsletter called Correctional Forum.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Practice and Promise of Prison Programming
    This report includes a literature review on the effectiveness of educational, vocational, and work programs in prison on employment outcomes and recidivism, and it includes an inventory of prison programs in seven states from the Great Lakes region. The report also makes recommendations for strategic opportunities and identifies policy targets for increasing and enhancing prison-based programming. Sarah Lawrence, Daniel P. Mears, Glenn Dubin, and Jeremy Travis, Urban Institute, May 30, 2002
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Activist Resource Center
    The Prison Activist Resource Center is the source for progressive and radical information on prisons and the criminal prosecution system. Contains links to Statistics, discussion, and background on the prison crisis, political prisoners, women prisoners, the death penalty, and control units. We also have links to sites on prisoner support, prison law, and prison activism.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Prison Bed Space Impact of Proposed Sentencing Reforms
    Available in the MSU Library Michigan Documents Collection
    A House Fiscal Focus report prepared by Marilyn Peterson, February 1996. This report examines the impact on prison bed space of five sentencing-reform proposals: (a) exclusion of certain offenders with low sentencing-guideline scores; (b) increase in the dollar amount of the misdemeanor/felony threshold; (c) modification of the sentencing impact of People v. Young on parole violators; (d) presumption of imprisonment for small-quantity drug offenders; and (e) elimination of the mandatory minimum sentence for third-offense drunk drivers. The above proposals are part of a larger package of correctional and sentencing options available to Michigan's Legislature to reduce future cell need.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Blues: How America's Foolish Sentencing Policies Endanger Public Safety
    Cato Institute Policy Analysis No. 208, May 17, 1994, David B. Kopel.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Break : How Michigan managed to empty its penitentiaries while lowering its crime rate
    This is a great start for those agencies looking to reduce overcrowding in their institutions and/or lower operational costs while maintaining public safety. Some of the topics covered by this article include: the Michigan Prisoner Reentry Initiative (MPRI) transition program for parolees; incarceration in Michigan; statistics versus case studies; and actions of Michigan’s parole board. Article by Luke Mogelson appearing in Washington Monthly, November/December 2010
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison-Building Boom : Should More Money Be Spent On Rehabilitation?
    Campus Access
    Off-Campus Access for MSU Students : Type in title in quick search box.
    The number of Americans behind bars has grown to nearly 2 million, requiring federal and state governments to build an unprecedented number of prisons. Conservatives argue that while regrettable, the prison-building boom has helped to bring down the nation's high crime rate. But liberals and others say the United States is building prison cells when it should be combating crime by spending more money on education and drug treatment. In addition, they argue, other tough-on-crime measures, such as mandatory minimum sentences and truth-in-sentencing laws, are simply keeping minor felons in jail too long and at great expense to the taxpayers. But proponents of tough sentencing laws counter that they are needed as an antidote to lenient judges. David Masci, Editorial Research Reports via CQ Researcher Archive, September 17, 1999.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Flicks
    Your source for reviews and discussion about women-in-prison movies, prison dramas, prison action, prison comedies, prison musicals, and prisoner of war pictures.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Gangs: Gang and Security Threat Group Awareness
    In 1992, the Florida Department of Corrections began its efforts to identify the levels of gang activity within its inmate/offender population. Although we had not realized a significant number of disruptive incidents attributed to gang activity, national trends and an increase in the intake of younger inmates prompted the Security Threat Group (STG) management initiative. The result is the comprehensive intelligence gathering program that has literally given us a "blueprint" of gang activity in Florida. The Security Threat Intelligence Unit (STIU) is now recognized as a national leader in STG identification, assessment and management. Although our primary focus is on inmates and offenders, we are committed to sharing what we learn with criminal justice agencies and the public. Includes sections on:

  • Gang Basics - Basic questions and research materials.
  • F.A.Q. - What is a criminal gang? Who is a criminal gang member?
  • Chicago Based - These gangs emerged in the early 1960's and have two primary alliances: People Nation and Folk Nation.
  • Nation Sets - The People Nation and Folk Nation are not gangs - they are alliances under which gangs are aligned.
  • L.A. Based - Bloods and Crips are probably the most widely recognized gangs.
  • Prison Gangs - There are six major prison gangs that are recognized nationally for their participation in organized crime and violence.
  • Florida Gangs - List of gangs/security threat groups encountered.
  • Supremacy Groups - Information on racial supremacy and neo-Nazi groups.
  • Awareness Strategies - Does your community have gangs? Why do youths join gangs?
  • Links - Additional resources on the internet
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Health Care: An Overview

    Karen Firestone, Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, 2000.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Health Care : Are Prisons Dumping Grounds for the Mentally Ill?
    Campus Access
    Off-Campus Access for MSU Students : Type in title in quick search box.
    A high percentage of the more than 2 million inmates in U.S. jails and prisons suffer from mental illness, addiction or infectious and chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and diabetes. About a quarter suffer from major depression and a fifth from psychosis. Many had little or no health care before being incarcerated. Providing treatment and preventive care for prisoners who eventually return to society can help stem the spread of infectious disease in communities and keep those with mental illness and addiction from landing back in jail, say public-health officials. While prisoners are, ironically, the only Americans who have a constitutionally guaranteed right to health care, most prison health systems are underfunded and understaffed, making the care they provide spotty at best. Meanwhile, strict sentencing guidelines and three-strikes-and-you're-out laws have created a burgeoning — and aging — prisoner population, which is driving skyrocketing health-care costs even higher. Marcia Clemmitt, CQ Researcher, January 5, 2007.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Prison Index: Taking the Pulse of the Crime Control Industry
    Print copy available in MSU Main Library stacks. The first accessible index of statistics about our nation's criminal justice system ever -- published by the Prison Policy Initiative.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Prison-Industrial Complex and the Global Economy

    Eve Goldberg and Linda Evans, Political Activist Resource Center Political Pamphlet No. 196. Over 1.8 million people are currently behind bars in the United States. This represents the highest per capita incarceration rate in the history of the world. In 1995 alone, 150 new U.S. prisons were built and filled. This monumental commitment to lock up a sizeable percentage of the population is an integral part of the globalization of capital. Several strands converged at the end of the Cold War, changing relations between labor and capital on an international scale: domestic economic decline, racism, the U.S. role as policeman of the world, and growth of the international drug economy in creating a booming prison/industrial complex. And the prison industrial complex is rapidly becoming an essential component of the U.S. economy.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Inmate Search
    Provides links to state inmate search locators. Courtesy of Law Research.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Labor Program Under Fire by Lawmakers, Private Industry
    Article by K. Daniel Glover, National Journal, appearing in GovExec.com Today, April 13, 2004. The desire to steer convicts away from repeat offenses is part of the rationale behind Federal Prison Industries, a quasi-governmental agency that trains inmates in various trades. FPI's goal, said Joseph D. Dubaskas Sr., the associate warden of industries at the Allenwood complex and chief of its three factories, is to employ as many prisoners as possible and to "teach them a skill [and] a work ethic that they can take with them when they go to the street."
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Legal News
    A monthly newsletter published and edited by Washington State prisoners Dan Pens and Paul Wright. since May of 1990. PLN covers prison-related news and analysis from across the country and around the world. The PLN reports on court decisions affecting prisoners and contains information designed to help prisoners vindicate their rights in the judicial system. PLN is aimed at prisoners and their friends and loved ones on the outside, with the goal of helping prisoners and their supporters organize themselves to have a voice, and to be a progressive force in developing a public policy debate around the issue of crime and punishment. With those objectives in mind, the PLN motto is: "Working to Extend Democracy to All." The web site is currently under construction. Contains links to additional sites of possible interest. [Also listed under Periodicals and Newsletters.]
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prisoner Offenders
    Our goal is to educate anyone interested in learning all there is to know about prison culture, prison life and prison gangs.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Overcrowding : Will Building More Prisons Cut the Crime Rate?
    Campus Access
    Off-Campus Access for MSU Students : Type in title in quick search box.
    Public outrage over several recent murders has prompted politicians and crime-weary citizens to demand that dangerous criminals be locked away for life. But the get-tough campaign is colliding with the reality of a prison system bursting at the seams. The federal prison system is 37 percent over-capacity, while budget-strapped states are housing prisoners in tents, hallways and gymnasiums -- or releasing them early. Conservatives cite government's duty to protect the public and argue that investing in new prison construction will pay off in long-range crime reduction. Liberals criticize the national trend toward mandatory sentences -- enacted largely as part of the “war on drugs” -- as a wasteful approach that is unaffordable and unlikely to cut crime. Charles S. Clark, Editorial Research Reports via CQ Researcher Archive, February 4, 1994.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Population: Another Look
    An issue paper by Karen Firestone, Senate Fiscal Agency analyst, October 1999. Choose SFA publications, issue papers, 1999 research reports.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Privatization and the Use of Incarceration
    Sentencing Project. September 2004.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Privatization : Koch Crime Commission Task Force Recommendations

    A task force report on the issues of prison privatization in the state of Kansas, February 1997.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Rape
    During the past 40 years, few studies have been conducted on prison rape, and none were national in scope. NIJ’s Web page on Prison Rape describes what is known about rape and sexual assault within the Nation’s prison and jails. Most prison rape goes largely unreported. Whether the number of prison rapes is large or small, the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) requires that Federal, State, and local correctional facilities maintain and enforce a zero-tolerance policy on sexual assault. Under PREA, NIJ is conducting several groundbreaking research studies on rape in prisons, jails, and lock-up facilities.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Reform : Are too many nonviolent criminals being incarcerated?
    Campus access
    Off-Campus Access for MSU Students : Type in title in quick search box.
    America has more people in prisons and jails — 2.2 million — than any other country in the world. And over the next five years, the number of prison inmates is projected to grow three times faster than the national population. Prison crowding in California has become so critical that Republican Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger has tried sending inmates to other states. And in Philadelphia a federal judge has called crowded conditions in city jails inhumane, warning that prisoners might have to be released. With the cost of housing prisoners projected to reach $40 billion by 2011, alternatives to incarceration for nonviolent crimes are being proposed, even by law-and-order prison officials and politicians. Meanwhile, support is growing for more rehabilitation programs in prisons as well as a bipartisan proposal to help ex-inmates stay out of prison. Peter Katel, CQ Researcher, April 6, 2007.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Search
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Suicide: An Overview and Guide to Prevention
    http://static.nicic.gov/Library/012475.pdf Lindsay M. Hayes, Project Director, National Center on Institutions and Alternatives. June 1995.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Town: Paying the Price
    This comic book by Kevin Pyle and Craig Gilmore addresses the ways in which the financing and siting of prisons and jails effects the people of rural communities in which prison are built. It also tells the story of the how mass incarceration effects the people of urban communities where the majority of people who are incarcerated come from. Included in the comic book are alternatives to the current system. A Comic Book from the Real Cost of Prisons Project.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prison Watch Network International Blog
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prisoner Locator Wiki (Godort)
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prisoner Reentry : A Pathfinder
    Prepared by Barbara Carrel and Catherine Stern, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Lloyd Sealy Library.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prisoner Reentry in Michigan
    This report describes the process of prisoner reentry in Michigan by examining the trends inincarceration in the state, the characteristics of the state’s released prisoners, the geographicdistribution of prisoners returning to communities in Michigan, and the social and economic climates of the communities that are home to the highest numbers of returning prisoners. The report consolidates existing data on incarceration and release trends and presents a new analysisof data on Michigan prisoners released in 2003. Amy L. Solomon, Gillian L. Thomson, with Sinead Keegan. Urban Institute Justice Policy Center. October 2004.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prisoner Reentry in Perspective
    Contrary to the popular image that reentry is a wave of released prisoners about to enter society, the growth of the prisoner release population has leveled off, after the dramatic rise during the 1980s, and the wave has already hit. Inmates returning to society now may be more difficult to reintegrate than their predecessors, as they are more likely (1) to have failed at parole previously; (2) not to have participated in educational and vocational programs in prison; and (3) to have served longer sentences, which attenuate ties to families. A substantial proportion of returning prisoners, largely drug offenders, are likely to "churn" through the correctional system, going from prison to supervision to revocation and back to prison multiple times. Comparatively few neighborhoods in most large cities must accommodate the bulk of returning prisoners. Reentry should be considered in concert with sentencing policies and corrections practice that determine who goes to prison, how long they stay, and how prepared they are for reintegration. James P. Lynch and William J. Sabol, Urban Institute, September 18, 2001
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prisoners of a Hard Life: Women and Their Children
    This comic book by Susan Willmarth, Ellen Miller-Mack, and Lois Ahrens includes stories about: women trapped by mandatory sentencing and the War on Drugs, the "costs" of incarceration for women and their families. A two page story details the trial and sentencing of Regina McKnight. Also included are "Change is Possible" alternatives to the present system, a glossary and footnotes. 20 pages with a four color cover. A Comic Book from the Real Cost of Prisons Project.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Prisoners of the War on Drugs
    This comic book by Sabrina Jones, Ellen Miller-Mack and Lois Ahrens includes: the history of the war on drugs, mandatory minimums and how racism creates harsher sentences for people of color; stories on how the war on drugs works against women, three strikes, obstacles to coming home after incarceration; how mass incarceration destabilizes neighborhoods. Alternatives to the present system. A Comic Book from the Real Cost of Prisons Project.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    A website for activists and academics working against the prison industrial complex. One of the purposes of this website is to publish useful, verifiable statistics and research about the crime control industry. Too often prison activists use statistics that are out of date, provided without citation or simply wrong. One of these days the public will start listening to prison activists, so let's be prepared to win decisively without being sidetracked by arguments over defective statistics. In some cases, the numbers we need don't exist. In others, the facts exist but activists don't know where to find them. Now you do. Start at prisonsucks.com.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Private and Public Prisons (GAO Report)
    Studies comparing operational costs and / or quality of service. (Letter Report, 08/16/96, GAO/GGD-96-158)
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Private Prison Boom Shows Signs of Slowing
    A private prison in Whiteville, Tenn., a town with 1,100 residents 60 miles east of Memphis, incarcerates as many convicted Wisconsin killers as any Wisconsin penal institution. States seeking the cheapest way to jail people have shipped felons beyond their borders rather than expand their own prisons. But studies show private prisons cost taxpayers nearly as much as public ones, and critics argue that punishing criminals shouldn’t be left to organizations whose primary motive is profit. Article by Kathleen Murphy, Staff Writer, August 22, 2001, appearing in Stateline.org
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Private Prisons and Prison Labor
    A collection of articles on prison privatization and prison labor.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Private Prisons, Public Doubts
    As California's first big private prison goes up, questions surface on profits vs. safety. Daniel B. Wood, Christian Science Monitor, July 21, 1998. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Private Prisons: Quality Corrections at a Lower Cost
    Adrian T. Moore, April 1998. Reason Public Policy Institute Policy Study No. 240.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Privatization and Competition in Corrections
    New research shows private prisons remain a viable alternative for addressing state budget concerns. Not only do private prisons themselves save money, but they also put external pressure on the corrections system, further constraining the escalation of costs. Three-fifths of all U.S. states host private prisons; most of them contract with the companies to house prisoners. Studies show significant savings in the range of 5 to 20 percent. However, two new studies have taken a slightly different approach to identifying cost savings associated with prison privatization. Courtesy of the Heartland Institute.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Privatizing Iowa’s Prisons - Policy Study
    The report indicates that Iowa has not experimented with privatization of its corrections system, despite its high cost for managing its system. Iowa’s prisons already are at 126% of capacity and rising. Iowa’s prison costs are high when compared with other states around the nation. Iowa’s per diem is $84.89, higher than neighboring Kansas’ at $83.38, and Oklahoma’s is dramatically lower by almost half at $43.34. The difference being that Oklahoma houses 30% of its inmate population with private prisons, Iowa and Kansas use none at all. Iowa could recognize a significant cost savings in prison construction through open bidding with the private sector for future inmate housing. Potentially utilizing private prisons for approximately 34% of its inmate population by 2011. Steven B. Garrison, Public Interest Institute - Iowa, January 2003.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Pros of Privately House Cons
    Three-fifths of all U.S. states contract with private corporations to house a portion of their state prisoners. This study, by research economist Matthew Mitchell, takes a broad approach, by comparing state per-prisoner department of corrections budgets across 46 states. The author conducted an interstate econometric test of the relative efficiency of private-run versus government-run prisons. The econometric test demonstrates to state policy makers nationwide strong empirical evidence of potential savings from privatization. Accounting for a number of cost factors, significant per-prisoner savings were found in states that house a portion of their prisoners privately. All other factors being equal, states such as New Mexico, with forty-five percent of its prisoners in private custody, spent about $9,660 less per prisoner in 2001 than non-privatized states. Given New Mexico’s prison population of 5,300, this is an annual savings of $51 million. Forty-five percent privatization is expected to reduce the typical department of corrections budget by about one-third. Matthew Mitchell. Rio Grande Foundation. March 2003.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Provisions of Mental Health Care in Prisons
    Contains the results of a survey on correctional agency management and treatment provisions for mentally ill inmates. Examines approaches to identifying and providing services to mentally ill prison populations, reported increases in mental illness, management and treatment of inmates, and staff training on mental health issues. National Institute of Corrections Information Center, 2001. 9 pp. Accession no. NIC-016724.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Putting Public Safety First
    This report enumerates 13 strategies for successful supervision and reentry that can reduce recidivism and hold offenders accountable for their actions, while also cutting substance abuse and unemployment, and restoring family bonds. Pew Center on the States, December 2008.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Radical Religion in Prison
    How are prison officials to balance security interests and the right of racial supremacists to pursue religion? The jury's still out. Discusses the Five Percenters. Brian Levin, Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Re-Entry Policy Council
    Each year, nearly 650,000 people are released from US prisons, and over 7 million are released from jails; the vast majority will be rearrested within 3 years. In its groundbreaking report, the Re-Entry Policy Council offers hundreds of consensus-based, bipartisan recommendations for reducing public spending and increasing public safety by promoting the safe and successful return of these individuals to the community.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Reform Cannot Wait : A Comprehensive Examination of the Cost of Incarceration in Ohio from 1991-2010
    ACLU of Ohio.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Researchers Evaluate Eight Shock Incarceration Programs (Boot Camps)
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Residential Treatment Programs: Concerns Regarding Abuse and Death in Certain Programs for Troubled Youth
    GAO report on boot camps, October 2007.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Rest of Their Lives: Life without Parole for Child Offenders in the United States
    The United States is one of the few countries where a crime committed by a juvenile regularly results in a life sentence without any possibility of parole. This 167-page report documents state and national trends in this type of sentencing and analyzes the race, history and crimes of the young offenders and is a joint project with Amnesty International.
    Note: cataloged for OPAC.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    A Review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons' Selection of Muslim Religious Services Providers
    A new report issued by the Justice Department's Inspector General calls for system wide changes to help prevent terrorist recruitment in the federal prisons. While the problem is not widespread, the IG found "deficiencies in how the BOP selects and supervises Muslim religious services providers." The report was issued at the request of Senator Charles Schumer (D-NY), who was concerned that the Bureau of Prisons relied on two organizations to recruit Muslim chaplains. He was concerned that those groups were connected to terrorist elements. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General. April 2004. 61pp.
    (Last checked 04/06/07)

    Right Sizing Justice: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Imprisonment in Three States
    Shows that much of our increasing prison population consists of people whose only crime is possession of drugs. It asked the question whether states should continue to allocate scarce prison space to house these offenders when hundreds of thousands of violent felons are released on parole or probation every year. Civic Report No. 8 from the Manhattan Institute. Anne Morrison Piehl, Bert Useem, and John J. DiIulio, Jr.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Role of Statistical Models in Planning Juvenile Corrections Capacity
    This report examines the utility of explanatory statistical models for planning correctional space. The report concludes that explanatory models provide relatively little information that policymakers can use. However, they may help to identify the range of factors that shape the demand for juvenile correctional capacity. Daniel P. Mears, Urban Institute, July 17, 2002.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    A Second Look at Alleviating Jail Crowding: A Systems Perspective
    Updating a previously published and extensively used 1985 document addressing concerns related to jail overcrowding, this version provides current examples of practices and programs that law enforcement peers have found to be successful in reducing unnecessary and expensive jail usage, while rigidly maintaining community safety and the integrity of the justice process. Bureau of Justice Assistance, Washington, DC: 2000.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Selective Ceiling : Inmate Population in Ohio's Private Prisons
    In this May 2001 study, Amy Hanauer and Michael Hallett find that Ohio's experiment with prison privatization is failing. Among the major findings of the report is that easy-to-manage inmates with dramatically fewer medical, disciplinary, and mental health needs have been targeted to private prisons in the state, allowing them to artificially cut costs. Selective Celling also details the troubled history of private prisons in Ohio, cataloging escapes, injuries, murders, inadequate medical treatment, security lapses, cost overruns, high levels of staff turnover, and contract violations. Still available thanks to the Internet Archives.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Sentencing Project
    Provide resources and information for the news media and the public concerned with criminal justice and sentencing issues. This site also includes news and information about the National Association of Sentencing Advocates (NASA), which The Sentencing Project sponsors, and professional information of use to its members.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Sexual Assaults in Prisons
    Is Sexual Assault in Prisons Caused by Sexual Desire? Resources used to support "Yes" and "No".
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Sheriff's Guide to Effective Jail Operations (ACCN 021925) (61 pp.)
    Discusses the following topics: role, purpose, and characteristics of the jail; sheriff's roles and responsibilities; providing effective leadership and support for the jail; liability and standards; jail physical plant; critical aspects of jail operations; and so much to learn . . . where to begin.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Shock Incarceration in New York
    New York State's Shock Incarceration program (boot camp) for young adults provides a therapeutic environment where young nonviolent offenders receive substance abuse treatment, academic education, and other help to promote their reintegration into the community. August 1994.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Social Function of the Prisons in the United States

    An article by Bettina Aptheker, Prison Activist Resource Center, an excerpt from If They Come in the Morning, Angela Davis, pp.51-59, December 1971.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Staffing Analysis for Women's Prisons and Special Prison Populations
    Examines staffing analysis practices, staffing patterns, and staffing needs in facilities or units housing women, medical care, and mental health care populations. National Institute of Corrections Information Center, December 2002. 14 pp. Accession no. NIC-018602.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Stars and Bars
    How can you tell when a democracy is dead? When concentration camps spring up and everyone shivers in fear? Or is it when concentration camps spring up and no one shivers in fear because everyone knows they're not for "people like us" (in Woody Allen's marvelous phrase) but for the others, the troublemakers, the ones you can tell are guilty merely by the color of their skin, the shape of their nose or their social class? Article by Daniel Lazare appearing in the August 27, 2007 edition of The Nation.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    State Department of Corrections Links
    Web links to all the state departments of correction courtesy of the Corrections Connection.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The State of Recidivism : The Revolving Door of America's Prisons
    Pew Center of the States, 2011.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Stop Prisoner Rape
    Provides education, information, and advocacy at all levels regarding sexual assault and enslavement; provides encouragement, advice, counseling, and legal support to survivors; trains staff who must deal with them; and in general tries to combat the problem.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Stress Among Probation and Parole Officers and What Can Be Done About It
    Probation and parole officers experience a great deal of job-related stress. A recent study investigated the nature and scope of the problem at nine sites around the country. Researchers identified the major sources of stress (heavy caseloads, paperwork, deadlines) and what officers do to cope. This Research for Practice summarizes key findings and provides case studies of promising stress reduction programs. June 2005. 17pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Suggested List of References for New Wardens
    A survival guide for newly appointed wardens. Bibliography prepared by Jeanne B. Stinchcomb, Florida Atlantic University.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Supermax Housing: A Survey of Current Issues
    Provides survey results on current and planned supermax housing in U.S. prisons and related issues in inmate management and programming. Special Issues in Corrections, National Institute on Corrections, March 1997. 13pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Supermax Prisons and the Constitution: Liability Concerns in the Extended Control Unit
    This publication highlights the major legal concerns associated with the ECU and offers some suggestions for addressing them. (NIC) (98 pp.) (ACCN 019835)
    Also listed in our online catalog.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Supermax Prisons : Overview and General Considerations
    Discusses definitions and operational, policy, and staff issues related to units and programs for the management of dangerous and disruptive inmates. Provides an overview of siting, design, and construction issues and presents conclusions and recommendations. Includes a checklist of considerations for an extended control facility and a bibliography. Chase Riveland, National Institute on Corrections, January 1999. 35 pp.
    Also listed in our online catalog.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Technocorrections: The Promises, the Uncertain Threats
    Reviews future corrections technology and the possible ethical and legal ramifications of its use. Tony Fabelo. NCJ181411. May 2000. 7pp.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Teen Help Boot Camps For Troubled Teens
    Looking for help wIth A troubled teen?
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Telemedicine Can Reduce Correctional Health Care Costs:
    An Evaluation of a Prison Telemedicine Network
    Telemedicine, the remote delivery of health care through telecommunications, is promising for prison use. This NIJ Research Report examines how prisons can use telemedicine to reduce health care costs and decrease security risks. Demonstrations of telemedicine in four Federal prisons indicate that, besides cost savings, remote telemedical consultations can provide access to new specialists and improve the quality of care delivered to prison populations. NCJ 175040. March 1999.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    ThoughtCo.Com Crime and Punishment Page
    Delve deeper into the study of crime. Explore criminal profiles, guides to the criminal justice system, statistics, and more.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Treatment or Incarceration
    National and State Findings on the Efficacy and Cost Savings of Drug Treatment Versus Imprisonment. The state of Maryland, like other states, has had to deal with substantial budget shortfalls at a time when the state is under increasing fiscal pressures due, in part, to a growing drug prisoner population. Because of the high costs of incarceration, this has resulted in insufficient resources being allocated to deal with the reasons why substance abusing offenders end up behind bars in the first place. Public opinion surveys show that taxpayers are frustrated by the current policy and it outcomes: A recent poll commissioned by the Justice Policy Institute showed that voters believe by a 5 to 1 margin that Maryland’s drug problem is getting worse, and 53% say that people who are incarcerated are more likely to commit crimes after being released than they were before entering prison (versus 20% who indicated they were less likely to commit crimes after being incarcerated).1 The same poll showed that Maryland voters believe by a two-to-one margin that there are too many people in prison, and 86% of respondents favor judges having the option to order treatment rather than prison for some drug users. This poll reveals that Marylanders know what researches have been telling policymakers for some time: many of the people clogging the criminal justice system are substance abusers and more cost-effective ways of dealing with this population are not being utilized to their full potential. Doug McVay, Vincent Schiraldi, and Jason Ziedenberg. Justice Policy Institute. March 24th, 2004.
    Also listed under Drugs.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Two Views on Imprisonment Policy:
    Lethal Violence and the Overreach of American Imprisonment
    Supply Side Imprisonment Policy
    A 32-page NIJ Research Report published in July 1997.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The United States of Incarceration
    Cartoon by Mark Fiore, July 6, 2006.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    U.S. Bureau of Prisons Inmate Locator
    Provides tips on locating prisoners in either the federal or state prison systems.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Weight Lifting in Prisons and Correctional Recreation
    News and information about recreational activities in prison, plus the public movement against inmates' recreational activities.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Well Kept: Comparing Quality of Confinement in a Public and Private Prison

    Executive Summary. A report to the National Institute of Justice by Charles H. Logan, Professor of Sociology, University of Connecticut, adapted for web page, Oct. 5, 1996. For more, see J. Crim. Law and Criminology 83 (1992): 577-613. Web page still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    The Women's Prison Association : Supporting Women Offenders and Their Families
    This NIJ Program Focus provides an indepth look at the Women's Prison Association (WPA), an incorporated, nonprofit agency in New York City that offers peer education, support, and transitional services to female inmates who are HIV+ or at risk for infection; and emergency and transitional housing, individualized case management services, skills-building workshops, child care, counseling, and other supports to released women, their children, and their families. The WPA programs incorporate many features that correctional experts consider essential to programming for women. It demonstrates program effectiveness by creating new mechanisms for tracking individual clients and measuring their ability to maintain housing and improve their family situations. [Also listed under Women and Criminal Justice]
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    World Prison Brief
    The World Prison Brief Online (WPB) was launched on 28 September 2000 using data specially compiled for ICPS. The visual map interface, and the world maps which are colour-coded according to each country's prison population rate, ensure that the data can be understood easily. The WPB is a data-base which provides factual information about prison systems throughout the world. It thus enables more evidence-based discussion of ways to improve prison systems in accordance with international human rights standards. Information is provided on prison populations and prison population rates per 100,000 of the national population, on the use of imprisonment for women and juveniles, on the extent of pre-trial imprisonment and on prison overcrowding, as well as a record of the national ministries responsible for prisons and contact details for prison administrations. Information is updated on a monthly basis using data from reputable sources. The World Prison Brief also presents lists, from the country with the highest rate to the country with the lowest rate, in respect of prison population rates, prison population totals, occupancy rates, pre-trial/remand prisoners, female prisoners and foreign prisoners. The last three lists show the number of such prisoners as a percentage of the prison population total. These ‘highest to lowest’ lists are available both for the entire world and for individual continents. Compiled by the Kings College (London) International Centre on Prison Studies
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    World Prison Population List (9th edition, 2009)
    Kings College London International Centre for Prison Studies.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)

    Youth Corrections In California
    This report describes the use of juvenile confinement space in California and the factors that shape the state's policy climate for juvenile justice. Legal and jurisdictional issues are examined, as are the state's plans for new construction and the role of political stakeholders in responding to the demand for additional confinement space for young offenders. David Steinhart and Jeffrey A. Butts, Urban Institute, July 17, 2002.
    Also listed in our online catalog.
    (Last checked 03/15/16)


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