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Criminal Justice Resources :

Drugs and Crime

"At a cost of approximately $28,000 per person, the State of Michigan currently spends in excess of $160 million dollars each year to incarcerate drug offenders. The actual cost to Michigan taxpayers is much higher because costs of incarceration do not include costs associated with crime investigations, prosecution, and defense of individuals charged with drug offenses." Source: Drug Policies in the State of Michigan: Economic Effects. Francisco A. Villarruel, MSU Institute for Children, Youth, and Families, April 2003.

Articles and Websites

American Council for Drug Education
An informative, no-nonsense primer. Details the signs and symptoms of substance abuse and gives tips on how to talk to your kids about drugs--including their possible answers to frequently asked questions. Helpful facts on drugs like marijuana, hallucinogens, heroin and inhalants--what they are, how they're taken and what they do to the body.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

America's Drug War
The fight against one of the world's most profitable industries. American RadioWorks® : the national documentary unit of Minnesota Public Radio, May 2001.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

America's Most Dangerous Drug
It creates a potent, long-lasting high—until the user crashes and, too often, literally burns. How meth quietly marched across the country and up the socioeconomic ladder—and the wreckage it leaves in its wake. As law enforcement fights a losing battle on the ground, officials ask: are the Feds doing all they can to contain this epidemic?
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Anti-Meth Site
A compilation of resources courtesy of KCI.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Are Crack Users Being Sentenced Fairly?

SpeakOut.com overview by John Barry, May 4, 2000. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive. Works best with Mozilla Firefox.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Are Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences Cost-Effective
A RAND Drug Policy Research Center research brief.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population
Publication by Steven Belenko, National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA), January 1998. Found that substance abuse was a factor in the crimes committed by 80 percent of the prison inmates in the United States. The inmates had either violated drug or alcohol laws, were high at the time they committed their crimes, stole to buy drugs, have a history of substance abuse or some combination of factors. Also found that inmates who were substance abusers were the most likely to be repeat offenders. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive. Works best with Mozilla Firefox.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

The Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States
Enforcing state and federal marijuana laws costs taxpayers an estimated $7.7 billion annually, according to a report released this week by visiting Harvard University economics professor, Jeffrey Miron, and endorsed by more than 500 economists. June 2005. 29pp. Also available as pdf.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Clandestine Drug Labs
This guide addresses the problem of clandestine drug labs. Offenders manufacture a variety of illicit drugs in such labs, including methamphetamine,† amphetamines, MDMA (ecstasy), methcathinone, PCP, LSD, and fentanyl, although methamphetamine accounts for 80 to 90 percent of the labs' total drug production.1 Accordingly, the problem of clandestine drug labs is closely tied with the problems associated with methamphetamine abuse. Courtesy of Michael S. Scott from the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Clandestine Methamphetamine Labs, 2nd Edition
This problem-oriented guide for police addresses the problem of clandestine drug labs. Offenders manufacture a variety of illicit drugs in such labs with methamphetamine accounting for 80 to 90 percent of the labs total drug production. Accordingly, the problem of clandestine drug labs is closely tied with the problems associated with methamphetamine abuse. This guide is an essential tool for law enforcement to help analyze and develop responses to their local clandestine methamphetamine lab problem (2nd Edition). Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2006.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Club Drugs : In the Spotlight
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Club drugs are being used by young adults at all-night dance parties such as "raves" or "trances," dance clubs, and bars. MDMA (Ecstasy), GHB, Rohypnol, ketamine, methamphetamine, and LSD are some of the club or party drugs gaining popularity. NIDA-supported research has shown that use of club drugs can cause serious health problems and, in some cases, even death. Used in combination with alcohol, these drugs can be even more dangerous. The web site is a service of The National Institute of Drug Abuse.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Combating Methamphetamine Laboratories and Abuse: Strategies for Success
McEwen, Tom, C. Uchida, et. al. (2002). U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. This publication features results from a national evaluation of law enforcement strategies to combat methamphetamine in six jurisdictions.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Confronting Drugs: Community Issues
Global Issues : An Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency - July 1999 Volume 4, Number 2. Note : access restricted to CIAO subscribers.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Decriminalization of Illegal Drugs
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drugs, and Human Resources. Committee Hearing 106-115, July 13, 1999.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Do Drug Courts Save Jail and Prison Space?
The paper, written by Research Associate Reggie Fluellen and Jennifer Trone of the Vera Institute of Justice, is an up-to-date review on the literature on drug courts, and offers policy makers practical advice on how to maximize conservation of custodial resources. The first Issue in Brief from the State Sentencing and Corrections Program.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

DRCNet Online Library of Drug Policy
Contains thousands of documents covering all aspects of drugs and drug policy, from ancient history to the latest developments from around the world, including:
(1) Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report (1894)
(2) Wickersham Commission Report on Alcohol Prohibition (1930)
(3) Congressional hearing transcripts for the Marihuana Tax Act and related documents (1936 through 1938)
(4) LaGuardia Committee Report on marijuana (1944)
(5) Wooton Report on Marijuana (UK, 1967)
(6) Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs (1969)
(7) The Forbidden Fruit and the Tree of Knowledge: a history of marijuana laws (1970)
(8) Dealing with Drug Abuse: A Report to the Ford Foundation (1972)
(9) Marijuana: a Signal of Misunderstanding: Report of the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse (1972)
(10) Report of the California Research Advisory Panel on Drugs (1988)
(11) A Wiser Course: Ending Drug Prohibition by the New York City Bar Association (1994)
(12) Legislative Options for Cannabis by the Australian Government (1994)
(13) Latest News from Europe
(14) Medical Marijuana
(15) Government Documents
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Addiction: The Struggle
A special issue of Global Issues: An Electronic Journal of the United States Information Agency, Vol. 2, no. 3, June 1997. Includes:
(1) Dealing with Addiction
(2) The U.S. Effort to Fight Drug Use
(3) Addiction is a Brain Disease
(4) Drug Prevention Makes A Difference
(5) Drug Courts: A Personalized Form of Justice
(6) Drug Use: A U.S. Concern for Over a Century
(7) Declaring Illegal Drugs Enemy Number One
(8) Treatment Programs Reduce Drug Use
(9) Bibliography
(10) Article Alert
(11) Notes on Internet Sites
Access restricted to CIAO subscribers.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Control: An Overview of U.S. Counterdrug Intelligence Activities
June 1998 GAO report.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Courts : In the Spotlight
Drug court participants undergo long-term treatment and counseling, sanctions, incentives, and frequent court appearances. Successful completion of the treatment program results in dismissal of the charges, reduced or set aside sentences, lesser penalties, or a combination of these. Most importantly, graduating participants gain the necessary tools to rebuild their lives.
Because the problem of drugs and crime is much too broad for any single agency to tackle alone, drug courts rely upon the daily communication and cooperation of judges, court personnel, probation, and treatment providers. (National Strategy for the Co-funding of Coordinated Drug Court Systems, National Association of Drug Court Professionals, 1994
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Courts Topical Collection in NIJ
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Crime Topical Collection in NIJ
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Dealing in Open-Air Markets
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), January 2005. Describes the problem of open-air markets—the lowest level of the drug distribution network—and reviews the factors that increase the risks of drug dealing in such markets. A series of questions will help local law enforcement analyze local problems, while a review of responses to the problem will describe what is known from evaluative research and police practice.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Dealing in Privately Owned Apartment Complexes
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2003. This guide focuses on drug dealing in privately owned apartment complexes. The guide makes a clear distinction between open- and closed-drug markets, provides information on what is known about each market type, and provides questions to ask when analyzing each market. It also proposes various responses designed to close drug markets and provides a full range of problem-specific measures to determine the effectiveness of those responses.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Mandatory Minimums: Are They Working?
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drugs, and Human Resources. 106-205, May 11, 2000.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

The Drug Nexus in Africa
Vienna, Austria : United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, 1999 .This report assesses the present vulnerability of sub-Saharan Africa to illicit drug production, trafficking and consumption. A paper copy of the report is also available in the MSU Libraries Government Documents Library.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Policies in the State of Michigan : Economic Effects
Francisco A. Villarruel, Thomas Judd, and Jessica Roman. MSU Institute for Children, Youth, and Families. April 2003. Still available thanks to the Internet Archives.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Policy Alliance
Drug Policy Alliance Library
Drug Policy Alliance is the nation's leading organization working to end the war on drugs and promote new drug policies based on common sense, science, public health and human rights. This site features a searchable database of thousands of library documents from both academic and popular literature focusing on drug policy from economic, criminal justice, and public health perspectives, and a subject index of full-text materials online. Formerly called the Lindesmith Center.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Policy in the Media
Contains numerous links to articles appearing in the web sites of well known magazines and newspapers. Sponsored by DRCNEt.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Related Street Terms/Slang Terms
Drugs are illegal in most places in the world today. For this reason talk of it has had to go underground. A very effective way of going underground is the development of a secret code language known and understood only by those who live in that world. In this way people can talk about illicit drug taking right in front of partners and parents without fear of them catching on. Courtesy of Addictions.org and the Internet Archive. Works best with Mozilla Firefox.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Sense
An alternative look at the War on Drugs.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Testing in Schools: An Effective Deterrent?
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drugs, and Human Resources. 106-211, May 30, 2000.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Tests: Products to Defraud Drug Use Screening Tests are Widely Available
The names of products that help users to defeat drug tests—Urine Luck, the Whizzinator, and Buttwedge—may be amusing, but their implications aren’t. Robert J. Cramer, managing director of the Office of Special Investigations at the U.S. Government Accountability Office, testified before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House Committee on Energy and Commerce that these and other products that help defraud drug tests “present formidable obstacles to the integrity of the drug testing process.” Through an online search, a visit to a retail store, and interviews of federal officials, the GAO identified about 400 different products designed to adulterate urine samples, not to mention many other products sold to “dilute, cleanse, or substitute urine specimens submitted to testers by drug users.”
(Last checked 09/15/05)

Drug Trafficking in the Caribbean: Do Traffickers use Cuba and Puerto Rico as Major Transit Locations for United States-Bound Narcotics?
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drugs, and Human Resources. 106-178, January 3-4, 2000.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Trafficking in the United States
A report on the trafficking, prices, purity, and seizure of cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, and marijuana; and related information on MDMA (Ecstasy), Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), Phencyclidine (PCP), Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate), and steroids. Includes photographs of the drugs in their various forms (plants, powders, pills, etc.). U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency, May, 2004 via Almanac of Policy Issues.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Treatment Options for the Justice System
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drugs, and Human Resources. 106-184, April 4, 2000.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug War and the Homicide Rate: A Direct Correlation?
The Cato Institute, a public policy research foundation in Washington, D.C., presents an article entitled "The Drug War and the Homicide Rate: A Direct Correlation?," by Harold J. Brumm and Dale O. Cloninger. The article was published in the Winter 1995 issue of "The Cato Journal." The authors discuss the homicide offense rate in relation to changes in the percentage of arrests attributed to drug offenses. Evidence shows that the current drug-control policy is more expensive than out-of-pocket drug-control expenditures made by the criminal justice system.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug War Facts: Crack
A project of Common Sense for Drug Policy.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drug Wars
Web site of the Frontline series on the thirty year history of America's war on drugs, including information on both sides of the battlefield - from drug warriors and from top traffickers. Videos (RealPlayer), charts, interviews, timelines, teacher's guide, and tapes and transcripts of the programs are available.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Drugs in the Mail: How Can They Be Stopped
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drugs, and Human Resources. 106-210, May 26, 2000.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

The Internet's Center for Substance Use Related Risk Reducation. Sponsored by the Foundation on Drug Policy and Human Rights, which promotes the development and dissemination of knowledge, research, education, scholarship and international jurisprudence in the area of drug policy and human rights.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992-1998
The consequences of using illicit drugs and the societal costs associated with drug law enforcement are examined. Seven sections comprise this report: executive summary; introduction; methodology; data and estimation of base cost components; estimates for 1992-1998; projections for 1999-2000; and discussion. Appendixes provide: acronyms and abbreviations; supplemental tables of data; and estimated costs in constant 2000 dollars. Between 1992 and 1998, increases in the following were observed: 5.9% in overall cost of drug abuse to society; 2.9% in health care related cost; 6.0% in reduced productivity; 6.5% in crime related cost; and 6.6% in costs of other effects, such as the criminal justice system, drug supply reduction, and social welfare.
(Last checked 06/02/05)

The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992-2002
Estimates the cost at $180 billion including health and crime consequences and loss of productivity. From the Office of National Drug Control Policy.
(Last checked 06/02/05)

Ecstasy: Should the Penalties Be Stiffened?

SpeakOut.com overview by John Barry, June 15, 2000. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive. Works best with Mozilla Firefox.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Efficacy and Impact: The Criminal Justice Response to Marijuana Policy in the United States
"In Efficacy and Impact: The Criminal Justice Response to Marijuana Policy in the United States, the Justice Policy Institute measures the effectiveness and the consequences of our national drug control policies, highlighting what can be learned from analyzing the leading national indicators of drug use, arrests, the costs and collateral consequences of the current policy." Justice Policy Institute, 2005. 24pp.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Global Illicit Drug Trends
First released in 1999, this report is now prepared annually by the Research Section of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP), which is part of the Vienna-based United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP). The report takes a statistical approach to assessing the status of world supply in and demand for illicit drugs. Based on data and estimates collected or prepared by Governments and UNDCP, as well as by other specialized agencies and international institutions, it attempts to identify trends in the evolution of global illicit drug markets. Reporting on a largely clandestine sector where information is by definition difficult to obtain, Global Illicit Drug Trends constitutes at present the most comprehensive published source of estimates and statistics on the global drug problem.
Note : in 2004, this title was merged with World Drug Report
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Global Security’s Collection of GAO Reports on Drug Control
(Last checked 01/30/12)

High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area
(Last checked 01/30/12)

How Goes the "War on Drugs"?
An Assessment of U.S. Drug Problems and Policy
Presents a concise, accessible, objective view of where the United States has been, now stands, and is going in the future in its long "war on drugs." The authors assess the success of drug policies to date and review possible reasons why they have not been more successful. They consider the drug war's "collateral damage" and attempt to understand why alternative policies have not been tried. They also lay out some possible futures for drug problems and policy in the United States. The authors recommend that a mix of three drug control strategies-enforcement, treatment, and prevention-be timed to a drug's "epidemic cycle." They further recommend that substance abuse be recognized as a long-term problem and managed for the long term and that cross-state variations in drug policy be viewed by the federal government as a plus rather than a minus. In conclusion, they press for a more dispassionate debate. Jonathan P. Caulkins, Peter Reuter, M.Y. Iguchi, James Chiesa. Prepared for the Ford Foundation by RAND. 2005. 61pp.
(Last checked 09/15/05)

In the Spotlight: Club Drugs
Detail-rich site that includes facts and figures, legislation, programs, training and technical assistance, grants and funding, a calendar of events, an abstracts database, and other information on club drugs, including MDMA (ecstasy), GHB (gamma hydroxybutynate), Rohypnol (roofies), ketamine, methamphetamines, and PMA (paramethoxyamphetamine). Also has links to publications on enforcement, consequences of use, and research. From The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS).
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD)
(Last checked 01/30/12)

International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR)
Each report contains descriptions and statistics on drug production, eradication, trafficking, money laundering, precursors etc. per substance, country and region and some general analysis. The first web link provides access to the 1996-1998 annual reports on drug control efforts worldwide, compiled by the U.S. State Department, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement during the Clinton presidency. The second web link provides access to the reports (1999-2006) issued during the Bush presidency.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Keeping Score: The Frailties of the Federal Drug Budget
A RAND Issue Paper (IP-138) by Patrick Murphy, 1994.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Law Enforcement Against Prohibition
I’m the speakers bureau director for Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, an organization comprised of cops, judges, prosecutors and others with criminal justice backgrounds, as well as concerned citizens, who call for an end to the “war on drugs”. Might you consider adding us as a resource to your page? After all, there is no other law enforcement grp that calls for some form of legalization to drugs. Mike Smithson, Speakers Bureau Director, Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, 131 Flint Path, Syracuse, NY 13219; Cell: 315-243-5844; fax: 315-488-3630; email: speakers@leap.cc
(Last checked 01/30/12)

A Madness Called Meth
California's Social, Medical, and Environmental Nightmare. Learn about the history, labs, users, and drug lords proliferating meth in America.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentencing: Throwing Away the Key or the Taxpayers' Money? (Summary)
A summary of RAND report MP-827-DPRC, 1997, by Jonathan P. Caulkins et. al.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

This page lists useful resources regarding marijuana use, its effects and treatment.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Media Awareness Project (MAP) Inc
MAP works to ensure more balanced and accurate media coverage of drug policy issues and maintains a comprehensive archive of drug policy news and many free e-mail subscription services.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Meth Epidemic FAQs (Frontline)
Meth Epidemic Broadcast (Frontline)
Speed. Meth. Glass. On the street, methamphetamine has many names. What started as a fad among West Coast motorcycle gangs in the 1970s has spread across the United States, and despite lawmakers' calls for action, the drug is now more potent, and more destructive, than at any time in the past decade. In "The Meth Epidemic," FRONTLINE, in association with The Oregonian, investigates the meth rampage in America: the appalling impact on individuals, families and communities, and the difficulty of controlling an essential ingredient in meth—ephedrine and pseudoephedrine—sold legally in over-the-counter cold remedies.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Methamphetamine Addiction
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Mexico's Drug Trafficking Organizations: Source and Scope of the Rising Violence
In Mexico, the violence generated by drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) in recent years has been, according to some, unprecedented. In 2006, Mexico's newly elected President Felipe Calderón launched an aggressive campaign--an initiative that has defined his administration-- against the DTOs that has been met with a violent response from the DTOs. Government enforcement efforts have had successes in removing some of the key leaders in all of the seven major DTOs. However, these efforts have led to violent succession struggles within the DTOs themselves. In July 2010, the Mexican government announced that more than 28,000 people had been killed in drug trafficking-related violence since December 2006, when President Calderón came to office....Although violence has been an inherent feature of the trade in illicit drugs, the character of the drug trafficking-related violence in Mexico seems to have changed recently, now exhibiting increasing brutality. In the first 10 months of 2010, an alarming number of Mexican public servants have been killed, allegedly by the DTOs, including 12 Mexican mayors and in July, a gubernatorial candidate. The massacres of young people and migrants, the killing and disappearance of Mexican journalists, the use of torture, and the phenomena of car bombs have received wide media coverage and have led some analysts to question if the violence has been transformed into something new, beyond the typical violence that has characterized the trade. For instance, some observers have raised the concern that the Mexican DTOs may be acting more like domestic terrorists. Others maintain that the DTOs are transnational organized crime organizations at times using terrorist tactics. Still others believe the DTOs may be similar to insurgents attempting to infiltrate the Mexican state by penetrating the government and police....The growing security crisis in Mexico, including the March 13, 2010, killing of three individuals connected to the U.S. consulate in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (two of the victims were U.S. citizens), has drawn the attention of the U.S. Congress and has raised concerns about the stability of a strategic partner and neighbor. Congress is also concerned about the possibility of "spillover" violence along the U.S. border and further inland. The 111th Congress held more than 20 hearings dealing with the violence in Mexico, U.S. foreign assistance, and border security issues. The 112th Congress is likely to be interested in progress made by the Calderón government in quelling the violence and asserting its authority in DTO strongholds, and in the implications for the United States. Members are also likely to continue to conduct close oversight of U.S.-Mexico security cooperation and other related bilateral issues....This report provides background on drug trafficking in Mexico, identifies the major drug trafficking organizations operating today, and analyzes the context, scope, and scale of the violence. It examines current trends of the violence, analyzes prospects for curbing violence in the future, and compares it with violence in Colombia. For background on U.S. policy responses to the spiraling violence in Mexico and information on bilateral cooperation between the United States and Mexico see CRS Report R41349, U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: the Mérida Initiative and Beyond, by Clare Ribando Seelke and Kristin M. Finklea. For a discussion of the problem of violence "spilling over" into the United States, see CRS Report R41075, Southwest Border Violence: Issues in Identifying and Measuring Spillover Violence, coordinated by Kristin M. Finklea. For general background on Mexico, see CRS Report RL32724, Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress, by Clare Ribando Seelke. Congressional Research Service (via OpenCRS), January 7, 2011.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Michigan Clandestine Drug Labs
web link
A new Web site provided by the Michigan Department of Community Health lists the addresses of Michigan residences and businesses where methamphetamine labs have been found by police and drug units.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Michigan Drug Court Program

Bill Bowerman and Karen Firestone, Senate Fiscal Agency, Feb. 28, 2001.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Narcotics : A Global Challenge
A special issue of Global Issues: An Electronic Journal of the United States Information Agency, Vol. 1, no. 7, July 1996. Includes:
(1) Global Cooperation Vital in Addressing Drug Concerns
(2) Cleaning Up the Money Launderers
(3) The DEA Demand Reduction Program
(4) Critical Targets
(5) The Drug Policy Debate: Prohibition versus Legalization
(6) Drug Bust
(7) The National Drug Control Strategy Report
(8) The International Drug Control Strategy Report
(9) Demand Reduction
(10) Narcotics/Substance Abuse
(11) School-Based Prevention
(Last checked 01/30/12)

National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORMAL)
(Last checked 01/30/12)

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2005)
The report provides the latest data on prevalence and correlates of substance use, serious mental illness, related problems, and treatment in the United States. Topics covered include the following: illicit drug use, alcohol use, tobacco use, initiation of substance abuse, youth prevention-related matters, substance dependence, abuse, and treatment, and prevalence and treatment of mental health problems.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

November Coalition
The November Coalition is a non-profit, grassroots organization who are educating the public about the destructive increase in prison population in the United States due to our current drug laws. We alert our fellow citizens, particularly those who are complacent or naive, about the present and impending dangers of an overly powerful federal authority acting far beyond its constitutional constraints. The drug war is an assault and steady erosion of our civil rights and freedoms by federal and state governments.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Office of National Drug Control Policy
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Partnerships Bring Reinvention to the War On Drugs
Article by Kathleen Millar in Reinventing Government.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Policing for Profit: The Drug War's Hidden Economic Agenda
During the 25 years of its existence, the "War on Drugs" has transformed the criminal justice system, to the point where the imperatives of drug law enforcement now drive many of the broader legislative, law enforcement, and corrections policies in counterproductive ways. One significant impetus for this transformation has been the enactment of forfeiture laws which allow law enforcement agencies to keep the lion's share of the drug-related assets they seize. Another has been the federal law enforcement aid program, revised a decade ago to focus on assisting state anti-drug efforts. Collectively these financial incentives have left many law enforcement agencies dependent on drug law enforcement to meet their budgetary requirements, at the expense of alternative goals such as the investigation and prosecution of non-drug crimes, crime prevention strategies, and drug education and treatment. In this article we present a legal and empirical analysis of these laws and their consequences. In so doing, we seek to explain why the drug war continues with such heavy emphasis on law enforcement and incarceration, and show the way to more rational policies. Online article by Eric Blumenson & Eva Nilsen.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Presumed Guilty
By Andrew Schneider and Mary Pat Flaherty. A six-part series of articles on the Drug Enforcement Administration's use and alleged abuse of asset seizure and forfeiture in the war on drugs. Originally published in the Pittsburgh Press in February 1991. Also includes August 1991 editorials.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations - A Research-Based Guide
This guide is intended to describe the treatment principles and research findings that are of particular relevance to the criminal justice community and to treatment professionals working with drug abusing offenders. The guide is divided into three main sections: (1) the first distills research findings on the addicted offender into 13 essential principles; (2) the second contains a series of frequently asked questions (FAQs) about drug abuse treatment for those involved with the criminal justice system; and (3) the third is a resource section that provides Web sites for additional information. National Institute on Drug Abuse. July 2006.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Prisoners of the War on Drugs
This comic book by Sabrina Jones, Ellen Miller-Mack and Lois Ahrens includes: the history of the war on drugs, mandatory minimums and how racism creates harsher sentences for people of color; stories on how the war on drugs works against women, three strikes, obstacles to coming home after incarceration; how mass incarceration destabilizes neighborhoods. Alternatives to the present system. A Comic Book from the Real Cost of Prisons Project.
(Last checked 08/31/05)

Pros and Cons of Drug Legalization, Decriminalization, and Harm Reduction
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drugs, and Human Resources. Committee Hearing 106-99, June 16, 1999.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Public Agenda's Illegal Drugs Issue Guide
Most Americans regard illegal drugs as one of the nation's most serious problems, but two generations after the "war on drugs" began, disagreement remains on what should be done. For most people, this is an intensely personal problem as well as a government concern. More than half of the public worry that a family member might become addicted, and an overwhelming majority say the government isn't doing enough to address the problem....
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Pulse Check: Drug Markets and Chronic Users in 25 of America's Largest Cities
NCJ 201398 provides timely information on drug abuse and drug markets as reported by local researchers, treatment providers, and law enforcement officials in 25 U.S. cities. (ONDCP) 324pp.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Punishment and Prejudice: Racial Disparities in the War on Drugs
Courtesy of Human Rights Watch, May 2000.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Report of the Task Force on the Use of Criminal Sanctions to the King County Bar Association Board of Trustees

This report presents data from King County Bar Association Drug Policy Project's task force to assess the effectiveness of current criminal sanctions in Washington State and on the U.S. federal level in reducing illicit drug use and drug-related crime. The harmful side effects of the federal war on drugs are also reviewed.
During the 1990s, rates of drug use and abuse have either remained steady or increased, despite the toughening of drug-related criminal sanctions at both state and federal levels. Furthermore, total public costs in Washington have risen during the past decade, with alcohol responsible for most of the rising costs. Rising costs related to illegal drugs can be attributed to increased drug law enforcement and the incarceration of drug offenders, not to any increased demand for medical or social services. Drug-related crime has increased, with arrests for drug offenses increasing by 345% in the state. Combined federal and state expenditures annually for drug law enforcement have risen since the mid-1980s from $10 billion to about $35 billion. The toughening of drug-related penalties has not resulted in greater public safety, nor has it deterred drug-related crime, or reduced recidivism in its removal of drug offenders from the community.
The war on drugs has negatively impacted economically disadvantaged communities through the massive incarceration of poor young men; the sense of disorder brought about by heavy police presence, open retail drug sales, and the threat of violent turf battles; the disruption of families, and the interference of educational and employment opportunities for incarcerated young men. The state should significantly expand its drug addiction treatment, drug education, and drug-abuse-prevention programs, which have consistently shown much greater cost-effective results in reducing problems created by drugs than current criminal sanctions. King County Bar Association Drug Policy Project. 2001. 53pp. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive. Works best with Mozilla Firefox.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Should Mandatory Minimum Sentenced Laws Be Repealed?
Silvio Carrillo, SpeakOut.Com, June 13, 2000
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Society of Suspects: The War on Drugs and Civil Liberties
Cato Institute Policy Analysis No. 180, October 2, 1992, Steven Wisotksy.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization

The U.S. Department of Justice's view on the matter. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive. Works best with Mozilla Firefox.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

State Drug Control Spending and Illicit Drug Participation
NBER working paper 7114 by Henry Saffer and Frank Chaloupka. May 1999. 21pp.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

StoptheDrugWar.org : The Drug Reform Coordination Network
The home page of the Drug Reform Coordination Network: Drug Policy Central on the Internet. Learn about what's wrong with Prohibition and the War on Drugs, and what you can do to fight for change.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Street Drugs
A web site designed for parents, teachers, students, DARE Officers, researchers, and others. Pulls together current information on drugs, drug abuse, and includes photographs. Contains an extensive alphabetical drug directory, plus an index that provides common street names. Also provides information about clandestine labs, legalizing drugs, drug abuse in the workplace, and gang violence.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Responsibilities for Developing Explosives and Narcotic Detection Technologies
Explores how the U.S. government is organized to develop technologies for detecting explosives and narcotics.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Treatment or Incarceration
National and State Findings on the Efficacy and Cost Savings of Drug Treatment Versus Imprisonment. The state of Maryland, like other states, has had to deal with substantial budget shortfalls at a time when the state is under increasing fiscal pressures due, in part, to a growing drug prisoner population. Because of the high costs of incarceration, this has resulted in insufficient resources being allocated to deal with the reasons why substance abusing offenders end up behind bars in the first place. Public opinion surveys show that taxpayers are frustrated by the current policy and it outcomes: A recent poll commissioned by the Justice Policy Institute showed that voters believe by a 5 to 1 margin that Maryland’s drug problem is getting worse, and 53% say that people who are incarcerated are more likely to commit crimes after being released than they were before entering prison (versus 20% who indicated they were less likely to commit crimes after being incarcerated).1 The same poll showed that Maryland voters believe by a two-to-one margin that there are too many people in prison, and 86% of respondents favor judges having the option to order treatment rather than prison for some drug users. This poll reveals that Marylanders know what researches have been telling policymakers for some time: many of the people clogging the criminal justice system are substance abusers and more cost-effective ways of dealing with this population are not being utilized to their full potential. Doug McVay, Vincent Schiraldi, and Jason Ziedenberg. Justice Policy Institute. March 24th, 2004.
Also listed under Corrections.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
The United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP) are part of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), which was formerly called the United Nations Office for Drug Control & Crime Prevention (ODCCP).
(Last checked 01/30/12)

U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy
ONDCP announces the release of a new World Wide Web site that provides access to U.S. drug policy information. The new site features the latest drug policy information, statistical summaries, ONDCP press releases, speeches, congressional testimony, the Federal drug control budget, the National Drug Control Strategy, and information about enforcement, prevention, education, and treatment initiatives. The site also includes features such as:
(1) a directory of State antidrug agencies.
(2) a comprehensive list of drug slang terms.
(3) a slide show highlighting drug-related statistics.
(4) Make-A-Zeen, where kids and teens are invited to submit artwork, stories, and games to create their own online magazine.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Vortex: The Concentrated Racial Impact of Drug Imprisonment and the Characteristics of Punitive Counties
Phillip Beatty, Amanda Petteruti and Jason Ziedenberg. Justice Policy Institute. December 4, 2007.
A new report released today by the Justice Policy Institute (JPI) finds that 97 percent of the nation’s large-population counties imprisoned African Americans at a higher rate than whites. The report documents racial disparities in the use of prison for drug offenses in 193 of the 198 counties that reported to government entities. “The Vortex: The Concentrated Racial Impact of Drug Imprisonment and the Characteristics of Punitive Counties,” found that counties with higher poverty rates, larger African-American populations and larger police or judicial budgets imprison people for drug offenses at higher rates than counties without these characteristics. These relationships were found to be independent of whether the county actually had a higher rate of crime. (The findings for the 198 counties.) “The Vortex” is the first study to examine the relationships between these sociodemographic structures and the specific annual rate at which people are admitted to prison for drug offenses, and the first to localize the racially disparate impact of drug imprisonment at the county level.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

War on Drugs : Should nonviolent drug users be subject to arrest?
President Bush's anti-drug campaign has increasingly focused on a law-enforcement model that attacks the “supply side” of the illegal drug industry — traffickers, smugglers and users — rather than on helping users through prevention and treatment, the so-called demand side. He also would like more middle and high schools to conduct random drug tests, although few have signed on. And although the Food and Drug Administration in April declared that smoked marijuana lacks any known medicinal properties, 12 states now bar state prosecution of those who use marijuana for medical purposes. The number of people arrested annually on marijuana-related charges has skyrocketed — from 400,000 in the 1980s to about 700,000 — partly because low-level drug offenders now can be diverted to one of more than 1,750 new “drug courts,” where their cases are dismissed if they stay straight. The Bush administration says it has struck the right balance between treatment and law enforcement. Peter Katel, CQ Researcher, June 2, 2006. Access restricted to subscribers.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

War on Marijuana: The Transformation of the War on Drugs in the 1990s
Ryan S. King and Marc Mauer, Sentencing Project, May 2005. 33pp.
(Last checked 01/30/12

What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs 1988–1998
William Rhodes, Mary Layne, Patrick Johnston, and Lynne Hozik. Prepared by Abt for the Office of National Drug Control Policy. December 2000.
(Last checked 01/30/12)

World Drug Report
First released in 1999, this report is now prepared annually by the Research Section of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP), which is part of the Vienna-based United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP). The report takes a statistical approach to assessing the status of world supply in and demand for illicit drugs. Based on data and estimates collected or prepared by Governments and UNDCP, as well as by other specialized agencies and international institutions, it attempts to identify trends in the evolution of global illicit drug markets. Reporting on a largely clandestine sector where information is by definition difficult to obtain, Global Illicit Drug Trends constitutes at present the most comprehensive published source of estimates and statistics on the global drug problem.
Note : in 2004, this title was merged with World Drug Report
(Last checked 01/30/12)

Yahoo U.S. War on Drugs Page
Courtesy of Yahoo USA and Yahoo UK.
(Last checked 01/30/12)


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