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Emergency Management

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Advice for Safeguarding Buildings Against Chemical or Biological Attack
Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Also listed under Biotterorism (Including Biological and Chemical Threats)
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction, see Gilmore Commission

All-Hands.net : Emergency Management Community Portal
All-Hands.net is a user-supported community where emergency management, homeland security, and business continuity professionals come together to post articles, share files, and communicate with others in our profession. Contains breaking news items.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

American Red Cross
Provides information on community disaster planning, mitigation, management, and recovery from disasters.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Basic Information on Building Protection
Documents and links courtesy of the U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Command (SBCCOM) Online. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
Also listed under Emergency Management.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
Provides information on bomb threat and detection resources.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Combating Terrorism:
Intergovernmental Partnership in a National Strategy to Enhance State and Local Preparedness
Testimony, March 22, 2002.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Combating Terrorism:
Key Aspects of a National Strategy to Enhance State and Local Preparedness
Testimony, March 1, 2002.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Communicating Out of a Crisis
Michael Bland. Basingstoke, England : Macmillan Business, 1998.
This is a modern, professional and practical approach to crisis management from a leading expert. The book examines the impact of a crisis - big or small - and the threat of negative publicity to corporate reputation. Most companies have no crisis management plans and hope that disaster will never strike. The author argues that consumerism, legislation, environmentalism, pressure groups, and investigative media all necessitate the development of a crisis communications plan. With a well thought out and practical plan the author shows how a crisis can be managed effectively or even turned to advantage through publicity giving the company's reputation a long term boost. Case studies examine the activities of 6 companies facing crises and the lessons to be learned from their approaches. Useful checklists are included as a handy quick reference for the practising PR professional.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Congressional Research Service Reports on Homeland Security
Compilation of CRS reports by Steven Aftergood, Federation of Atomic Scientists.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Contingency Management Services, Inc. Articles
Provides a coolection of articles on (1) Energy and Emergency Preparedness; (2) Transportation Security; (3) Security Services; (4) Counterterrorism; and (5)Press Releases.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Department of Homeland Security
The mission of the Department of Homeland Security would be to: (1) Prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; (2) Reduce America's vulnerability to terrorism; and (3) Minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response Association International (DERA)
DERA was founded in 1962 to assist communities worldwide in disaster preparedness, response and recovery, and to serve as a professional association linking professionals, volunteers, and organizations active in all phases of emergency preparedness and management. Includes links to DisasterCom newsletter and membership information.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Disaster Resource Guide
Resources for Crisis/Emergency Management & Business Continuity. Whether you are a senior executive looking for an industry overview, an experienced manager searching for the latest trends, or a new contingency planner in need of the basics, you will find the guide to be the most comprehensive source for crisis/emergency management and business continuity information. The online Disaster Resource Guide is set up to help you find information, vendors, organizations and many resources to help you prepare for (mitigate) or recover from any type of natural or other type of disaster. The GUIDE is to help you keep your business running, your government agency operational, no matter what!
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Disaster Victim Identication Guide
Disasters, whether natural, technological or man-made, are unfortunately a fact of life. One aspect common to them all is the inevitability of the many police, technical, medical and other investigations that follow. The purpose of this Interpol guide is to promulgate good practice in respect of one type of investigation conducted when lives have been lost: Disaster Victim Identification. Interpol.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Emergency Management Guide for Business and Industry (FEMA)
Provides a step by step approach to emergency planning, response, and recovery for companies of all sizes. Sponsored by a Public-Private partnership with Federal emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Prepared by Thomas Wahle and Gregg Beatty for FEMA, 2003. 67pp.
Also listed under Corporate Security.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Environmental Protection Agency
Emergency Management
To ensure that this nation is better prepared for environmental emergencies, EPA is working with other federal partners to prevent accidents as well as to maintain superior response capabilities. One of our roles is to provide information about response efforts, regulations, tools, and research that will help the regulated community, government entities, and concerned citizens prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Evacuation Planning Matrix: Evacuation and Building Emergency Planning Guide
Recent terrorist events in the United States underscore the importance of workplace evacuation planning. Consequently, OSHA developed this Evacuation Planning Matrix to provide employers with planning considerations and on-line resources that may help employers reduce their vulnerability to a terrorist act or the impact of a terrorist release. Terrorist incidents are not emergencies that OSHA expects an employer to reasonably anticipate. However, if a terrorist release does occur in or near your workplace, an effective evacuation plan increases the likelihood that your employees will reach shelter safely.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Evacuating High-Rise Buildings
OSHA Fact Sheet, 2003.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Extension Disaster Education Network (EDEN)
A searchable database containing University information regarding disaster mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Also contains links to University and other government and business URL's related to disaster response.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

FCC Homeland Security Policy Council
This new agency will assist the Commission in evaluating and strengthening measures for protecting U.S. telecommunications, broadcast and other communications infrastructure and facilities from further terrorist attacks>
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
The Federal Emergency Management Agency responds to natural disasters and other emergency rescue operations.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Information Resource Library
The FEMA Information Resource Library is a searchable web-based collection of all publicly accessible FEMA information resources, including: CDs, DVDs, VHS tapes, audio tapes, disability resources, posters and display items, brochures, publications, guidance and policy papers, program regulations and guidelines, forms, slide presentations, and some documents
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Fire and Explosion Planning Matrix: Building and Facility Planning Guides
Recent terrorist events in the United States underscore the importance of fire prevention and workplace emergency planning efforts. Fires or explosions created by arson or an explosive device can be the quickest way for a terrorist to affect a targeted business. Consequently, OSHA developed this Fire and Explosion Planning Matrix to provide employers with planning considerations and on-line resources that may help employers reduce their vulnerability to, or the consequences of, a terrorist's explosive device or act of arson. A terrorist's explosive device or act of arson are not workplace fire hazards or ignition sources that OSHA expects an employer to reasonably identify and attempt to control. However, an effective fire prevention plan that includes these fire hazards/ignition sources may increase workplace safety and security, and ensure that employees know how to respond to threats and incidents safely and effectively. OSHA. Oct 2003.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Gilmore Commission
Forging America's New Normalcy: Securing Our Homeland, Protecting Our Liberty
The United States needs an improved homeland security strategy to strengthen security in communities facing the greatest risk, improve the use of intelligence, increase the role of state and local officials, and sharpen disaster response capabilities, a federal commission said on Dec. 15, 2003.
In a report to President Bush and the Congress, the commission -- chaired by former Virginia Gov. James S. Gilmore III and known as the Gilmore Commission -- says the creation of the Department of Homeland Security has resulted in improved planning and readiness. But the report concludes that the overall national homeland security strategy should be directed by a White House-level entity that "must have some clear authority over the homeland security budgets and programs throughout the federal government."
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Global Security's Collection of GAO Reports on Building Security
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Global Security's Collection of GAO Reports on Homeland Security
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Governor's Domestic Preparedness Checklist
A guide for Governors' staffs and other response authorities to evaluate and enhance state preparedness capabilities. Courtesy of the National Governor's Association and the Internet Archives.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Governor's Guide to Emergency Management: Volume 1, Natural Disasters
This guide is intended to provide governors and their staffs with policies, procedures, and general information regarding emergency management and inform them of the related major issues a governor and staff need to be aware of and prepared for. Courtesy of the National Governor's Association and the Internet Archives.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Governor's Guide to Emergency Management: Volume 2, Homeland Security
With lives, infrastructure, and resources at stake, governors must become instant experts in homeland security when their states are affected by a terrorist incident. This report addresses the major homeland security issues a governor and his or her staff need to understand and prepare for. Courtesy of the National Governor's Association and the Internet Archives.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments
from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks

NIOSH DHHS (NIOSH) Pub No. 2003-136, April, 2003.
Also listed under Bioterrorism
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
This document identifies actions that a building owner or manager can implement without undue delay to enhance occupant protection from an airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attack. NIOSH, May, 2002.
Also listed under Bioterrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Guide for All Hazard Emergency Hazard Planning - Chapter 6, Terrorism
Also listed under Bioterrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Guide for the Selection of Chemical Agent and Toxic Industrial Material Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responders
This National Institute of Justice Guide for emergency first responders provides information about detecting chemical agents and toxic industrial materials and selecting equipment for different applications. June 2000. Dr. Alim Fatah.
Also listed under Bioterrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Guide for the Selection of Chemical and Biological Decontamination Equipment for Emergency First Responders, Volume I
NCJ 189724 provides information about the selection and use of chemical, biological, and toxic decontamination techniques and equipment for various applications. (NIJ) 96pp.
Also listed under Bioterrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Guide for the Selection of Chemical and Biological Decontamination Equipment for Emergency First Responders, Volume II
NCJ 189725 contains data sheets to support the decontamination equipment evaluation detailed in volume I of this guide. (NIJ) 186pp.
Also listed under Bioterrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Guide for the Selection of Communication Equipment for Emergency First Responders
Volume 1 (64 pp.) (NCJ 191160): https://web.archive.org/web/20071120062923/http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/191160.pdf
Volume 2 (422 pp.) (NCJ 191161): https://web.archive.org/web/20071120062929/http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/191161.pdf
NIJ Guide 104-00, Volume 1 and 2, provides emergency first responders with information they can assess when selecting communication equipment for use with chemical and biological protective clothing and respiratory equipment. (NIJ)
Also listed under Bioterrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Guide for the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Emergency First Responders
A first effort guide designed to assist the emergency first responder community in the evaluation and purchase of personal protective equipment. This volume focuses on percutaneous (skin) protection other than apparel (refereed to as garments, or specifically sutis, coveralls, and ensembles). Test data is included and while the guide does not provide recommendations or endorse any product, it does present information for the reader to compare and contrast commercially available personal protective equipment. Dr. Alim A. Fatah, John A. Barrett, et. al. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC: 2002. 559 pp.
Also listed under Bioterrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Homeland Defense Journal
Provides full text access to the journal in pdf format, subscription information, and announcements of conferences related to homeland security.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Homeland Security and America's Cities

America's cities are taking on new Homeland Security responsibilities, while at the same time traditional concerns about crime, the economy, and infrastructure are also requiring greater attention. These added responsibilities come at a time when city officials are also more and more concerned about local fiscal and economic conditions, according to the National League of Cities State of America's Cities Survey. The survey of 725 city officials was conducted in July and August 2002 and asked city officials questions about: Homeland Security responsibilities relative to traditional responsibilities, city planning efforts, city facilities that need to be protected, regional coordination and collaboration, cities' relations with the public, fiscal impacts, and federal-state resource needs. Still available thanks to the Internet Archives.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Homeland Security: Federal Resources for Local Governments

A 37-page directory that describes numerous federal agencies, offices, and programs that can help cities prepare and respond to various types of terrorism and other emergencies. It includes key phone numbers, Web links, and a list of state homeland security offices and contacts. National League of Cities, Sept. 2002. 38pp. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Homeland Security: Practical Tools for Local Governments
A 36-page guidebook that provides practical advice for local elected officials in carrying out their roles as the front line of hometown defense. The booklet provides basic guidance about local preparedness, examples of local approaches and sources of additional information. National League of Cities, Sept. 2002. 85pp. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Homeland Security Today Daily News and Analysis
(Last checked 07/31/17)

How Crime-scene Clean-up Works
The police, the fire department and the crime-scene investigators who arrive at a crime scene perform crucial tasks in the aftermath of a violent death. But they don't, as a general rule, clean up. Mopping up after someone who dies violently is the responsibility of that person's family. And until recently, there were very few cleaning companies that would handle that kind of job, so the family members ended up having to do it themselves. If ever there were a situation begging for capitalism to step in and take over, this was it.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

How to React When Terrorists Attack
Covers dirty bombs, chemical and biological attacks. Compiled by Peter Eisler and Dan Vergano, USA Today, Feb. 12, 2003.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Individual Preparedness & Response to Terrorism Attack Quick Guide
Even people who consider themselves prepared to deal with common emergencies might not know what to do during a chemical, radiological, nuclear, or biological attack. This quick guide offers suggestions about how individuals can prepare for such attacks and what actions they can take during each type of attack to protect their own health and safety -- and, possibly, their own lives. A reference card included at the back of the guide encapsulates the key points and can be removed for display in a prominent place.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Individual Preparedness and Response to Chemical, Radiological, Nuclear, and Biological Terrorist Attacks
Lynn E. Davis, Tom LaTourrette, David Mosher, Lois Davis, and David Howell. Individual preparedness is an important element of our nation's strategy for homeland security. This report adopts a scenario-driven approach that provides a rigorous way to identify actions -- linked specifically to terrorist attacks -- individuals can take to protect their health and safety. The result is an individual's strategy across four types of terrorist attacks -- chemical, radiological, nuclear, and biological -- consisting of overarching goals and simple and directive response and preparatory actions. The actions are appropriate regardless of likelihood of an attack, scale of attack, or government alert level; designed to be sensitive to potential variations; and defined in terms of simple rules that should be easy for individuals to adopt.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

InfraGard: Guarding the Nation's Infrastructure
InfraGard is an information sharing and analysis effort serving the interests and combining the knowledge base of a wide range of members. At its most basic level, InfraGard is a cooperative undertaking between the U.S. Government (led by the FBI) and an association of businesses, academic institutions, state and local law enforcement agencies, and other participants dedicated to increasing the security of United States critical infrastructures.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

International Association of Emergency Managers
IAEM is a non-profit educational organization dedicated to promoting the goals of saving lives and protecting property during emergencies and disasters.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Introduction to CBRNE Terrorism: An Awareness Primer and Preparedness Guide for Emergency Responders
This monograph provides first responders with an introduction to the types of weapons (nuclear, biological, and chemical) they may be exposed to in a terrorist attack. It advises responders on quick and efficient rescue and treatment of victims and control or containment of the disaster scene. Robert J. Heyer, Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response Association, October 2001.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Inventory of State and Local Law Enforcement Technology Needs to Combat Terrorism
Terrorist acts and the ability of the United States both to prevent incidents and to deal with them effectively when they occur are issues of increasing concern in the country today. Recent incidents have shown that the United States is at risk from parties and individuals abroad and within its borders. Recognizing the need to identify, document, and respond to shortfalls in State and local capabilities to combat terrorism, Congress, through the Act, charged NIJ with determining State and local law enforcement technology needs for handling terrorist activities and with developing technological solutions to respond to those needs.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Measuring and Evaluating Local Preparedness for a Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attack
This issue paper examines local organizations' preparedness to respond to chemical and biological terrorism incidents. The authors advocate establishing nationally representative measures of local responder preparedness. Ronald D. Fricker, Jr., RAND, 2002
Also listed under Bioterrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Method to Assess the Vulnerability of U.S. Chemical Facilities
Presents a tool for assessing the potential security risks at chemical facilities, focusing on terrorist or criminal actions that could have significant national impact or could cause the airborne release of hazardous chemicals resulting in deaths and contamination. (NCJ 195171)
Also listed under Bioterrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Michigan Municipal League
Disaster/Terrorism Preparedness
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Michigan Prepares
Welcome to Michigan Prepares - Michigan's new web site for individual and family emergency preparedness. When an emergency happens, your safety and the safety of your family may depend on decisions made in a few seconds. Creating a plan and talking about it ahead of time can make all the difference. This web page contains a wide variety of information to help you develop an emergency plan that is right for your family. Just click on the links below for valuable information about natural disasters, chemical or biological emergencies, and much more.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Michigan State Police
Emergency Management and Homeland Security Division
Also listed under Criminal Justice Resources : Arson & Fire Science.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

National Association of County and City Health Officials
Bioterrorism and Emergency Response Program

Still available thanks to the Internet Archives.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

National Emergency Management Association (NEMA)
NEMA is the professional association of and for state emergency management directors. The NEMA library link provides documents from the association's last 21 conferences. This is an an excellent reference to bookmark and refer to as it contains information on emergency management issues with perspectives from federal, state, local, and private sector. It also contains important links to other areas regarding homeland security.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

National Governors Association
Center for Best Practices
Homeland Security
Governors play a critical role in homeland security. State and local law enforcement and health personnel provide the first line of defense in protecting critical infrastructure and public health and safety. Should an incident occur, state and local personnel are the first to respond to an emergency and the last to leave the scene. Governors, with the support of the federal government, are responsible for coordinating state and local resources to effectively address natural disasters, accidents, and other types of major emergencies, including terrorist incidents.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

National League of Cities
Homeland Security: Federal Resources for Local Governments
see Homeland Security: Federal Resources for Local Governments

National League of Cities
Homeland Security: Practical Tools for Local Governments
see Homeland Security: Practical Tools for Local Governments

National League of Cities
Lessons Learned from the September 11 Terrorist Attack

The following 12 lessons were developed by the NLC Working Group on Homeland Security from a series of briefings held with key responders to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center. These 12 points offer practical guidance to local officials in cities and towns of all sizes as they develop and refine local and regional homeland security plans.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

National League of Cities
Strengthening Hometown Security

Since September 11, 2001, America's cities and towns have been working to ensure hometown security by reviewing and revising their emergency preparedness plans, conducting training sessions and drills, participating in regional and statewide planning sessions, and restoring confidence in the American way of life.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

National Response Team
Incident Command/Unified Command Technical Assistance Guide
(Last checked 07/31/17)

National Summit on Campus Public Safety
Subtitled: Strategies for Colleges and Universities in a Homeland Security Environment. Calls colleges and universities "among society's most vulnerable and exploitable targets for individuals and organizations seeking to cause harm and fear." Documents and assesses existing campus policing strategies as the basis for a national strategy. From the Justice Department.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

NOAA: Office of Response and Restoration
"Here are tools and information for emergency responders and planners, and others working to understand and mitigate the effects of oil and hazardous materials in our waters and along our coasts."
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Oklahoma City - Seven Years Later
Intended for a very broad audience, this brief pamphlet examines the lessons learned from the Oklahoma City bombing and offers advice for schools, clergy, first responders, city officials, volunteer organizations and others. Courtesy of the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction (Book)
Not a web page but available in print in the MSU Government Documents Library and selected other Federal Depository Libraries - FEM1.2: P69/2
Helps community leaders and planners to educate their constituents on how informed decisions and choices can affect the rebuilding process and yield a safer, more sustainable community. Designed to equip planners and all others involved in post-disaster reconstruction issues at all levels of government with the tools needed to create (or re-create) communities that will withstand disaster and emergency situations. 1998: 348 p.; ill.

Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities
The U.S. Department of Education has developed a guide to provide schools and communities with basic guidelines and useful ideas on how to develop emergency response and crisis management plans. May 2003.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Protecting Emergency Responders: Lessons Learned from Terrorist Attacks
This report presents a summary of a December 2001 working conference, sponsored by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Attending were emergency workers who responded to the bombing of the Murrah Building in Oklahoma City, the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the anthrax incidents that occurred during autumn 2001. The report addresses the equipment, training and information required to protect emergency responders as they meet the challenge of protecting their communities. Brian Jackson, D.J. Peterson, James Bartis, Tom LaTourrette, Irene Brahmakulam, Ari Houser, Jerry Sollinger. RAND.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Protecting Emergency Responders, Volume 2: Community Views of Safety and Health Risks and Personal Protection Needs
Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and emergency medical service responders play a critical role in protecting people and property in the event of fires, medical emergencies, terrorist acts, and numerous other emergencies. The authors examine the hazards that responders face and the personal protective technology needed to contend with those hazards. The findings are based on in-depth discussions with 190 members of the emergency responder community and are intended to help define the protective technology needs of responders and develop a comprehensive personal protective technology research agenda. Tom LaTourrette, D. J. Peterson, James T. Bartis, Brian A. Jackson, and Ari Houser. RAND.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Protecting Your Community From Terrorism, Volume 1: Local-Federal Partnerships
This is the first in a series on Protecting Your Community From Terrorism: Strategies for Local Law Enforcement. The PERF white paper funded by the COPS Office is based in large part on an unprecedented executive session in November 2002 that brought together chief law enforcement executives, FBI Special Agents in Charge and antiterrorist experts, and other leading thinkers on how law enforcement will deal with the new terrorist threat. It was a no-holds-barred meeting in which candid debates were conducted on such issues as how to promote effective partnerships; security clearances and information sharing; joint terrorism task forces; FBI strategies; intelligence; multijurisdictional information sharing; and training and awareness. The result is more than 50 recommendations detailed in this paper-set largely by consensus and an urgent desire to move our preparedness and response forward in these difficult times.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Protecting your Community from Terrorism : Preparing for and Responding to Bioterrorism
Volume 3 of Partnerships to Promote Homeland Security.
This report discusses the relative threats of various biological and chemical agents and the response challenges for first responders. The chapters cover five critical areas involved in preparing for and responding to a bioterrorist event: detecting a biological attack, notifying the proper first responders, intervening and working with other stakeholders, managing health care surge demands, and maintaining communication among all involved agencies and the public.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Protecting Your Community From Terrorism: Strategies for Local Law Enforcement
Volume 5 of Partnerships to Promote Homeland Security. (108 pp.) (NCJ 212428)
Examines issues of notification, general threat warnings, intelligence and data sharing, community policing principles, how resources should be spent, issues of trust, and much more. (COPS)
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Protecting your Community from Terrorism : Working with Diverse Communities
Volume 2 of Partnerships to Promote Homeland Security.
This is the second in a series on Protecting Your Community From Terrorism: Strategies for Local Law Enforcement. This PERF white paper is the result of a compelling executive session in June 2003 sponsored by the COPS Office which brought together law enforcement chief executives, diverse community leaders and advocates, and federal law enforcement officials. The report details myriad recommendations for how law enforcement and minority communities can better work together to protect against future terrorist attacks, prevent backlash violence against vulnerable groups, and sensitize officers to cultural issues that can affect interviewing and information sharing.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

The Department of Homeland Security has created this web page because "terrorism forces us to make a choice -- don't be afraid, be ready." Terrorists are working to obtain biological, chemical, nuclear and radiological weapons, and the threat of an attack is very real. Here at the Department of Homeland Security, throughout the federal government, and at organizations across America we are working hard to strengthen our Nation's security. Whenever possible, we want to stop terrorist attacks before they happen. All Americans should begin a process of learning about potential threats so we are better prepared to react during an attack. While there is no way to predict what will happen, or what your personal circumstances will be, there are simple things you can do now to prepare yourself and your loved ones. Provides tips on what to do in case of biological incidents, chemical incidents, explosions, nuclear blasts, or radiological threats.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Reference Manual to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings
This December 2003 FEMA manual (420pp.) provides guidance to the building science community of architects and engineers, to reduce physical damage to buildings, related infrastructure, and people caused by terrorist assaults. The manual presents incremental approaches that can be implemented over time to decrease the vulnerability of buildings to terrorist threats. Many of the recommendations can be implemented quickly and cost-effectively.
FEMA 426 contains many how-to aspects based upon current information contained in FEMA, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, Department of Justice, General Services Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and other publications. The manual describes a threat assessment methodology and presents a Building Vulnerability Assessment Checklist to support the assessment process. It also discusses architectural and engineering design considerations, standoff distances, explosive blast, and chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) information.
The appendices in this manual include a glossary of CBR definitions as well as general defi nitions of key terminologies used in the building science security area. The appendices also describe design considerations for electronic security systems and provide a listing of associations and organizations currently working in the building science security area.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Review of Emergency Preparedness of Areas Adjacent to Indian Point and Millstone
In January 2003, James Lee Witt, former FEMA director, concluded that emergency planning was inadequate at the Indian Point nuclear power station in Buchanan, N.Y., just 35 miles north of midtown Manhattan, partly because of the failure to take terrorism into account. The "Witt Report" provides all emergency planners a valuable opportunity to compare and improve their own safety plan. 282pp. More information is available in the online IPSEC Reading Room.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Talking about Disaster--Providing Safety Information to the Public
This guide has been developed to assist anyone providing disaster safety information to the public. The messages are intended to be used in educational presentations, displays and bulletin boards, print and electronic media, radio and television, and in any other medium in which disaster safety is communicated to the public. Each message describes a recommended action or behavior. Topics include weather and chemical emergencies.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Terrorism Insurance: Alternative Programs for Protecting Insurance Consumers
Before September 11, insurance coverage for losses from terrorism was a normal feature of insurance contracts. The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon have changed insurers' perceptions of their risk exposure. Both insurers and reinsurers say that they do not know how much to charge for this coverage and because they cannot predict future losses, they may exclude terrorism insurance from future contracts unless the federal government provides some guidance to the industry. Several insurance programs in the United States and other countries ensure that insurance will be available to cover risks that the private sector has been unable or unwilling to cover, including losses from catastrophic events and terrorism. For government insurance programs, the question of long-term cost and program funding needs to be addressed before any program is established. Some federal insurance programs have a statutory intent to provide subsidized coverage, while others are intended to be self-funding. Regardless of statutory intent, if federal insurance is underpriced relative to its long-run costs and the federal government pays the difference, a government subsidy results. GAO-02-199T. October 24, 2001.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Terrorism Insurance: Rising Uninsured Exposure to Attacks Heightens Potential Economic Vulnerabilities
In the closing months of 2001, insurers claimed that they could not afford to continue providing coverage for potential terrorism losses. Considerable debate has taken place on what the federal government can do to keep commercial insurance companies involved in providing terrorism insurance, even without the protection that they normally receive from reinsurance. Insurance companies are withdrawing from the market because they believe that neither the frequency nor the magnitude of future terrorist losses can be estimated. Insurance coverage for terrorism is disappearing, particularly for large businesses and those perceived to be at some risk. This withdrawal is happening fastest among reinsurers. Because the insurers' withdrawal has been gradual, the extent of the potential economic consequences is still unclear. What is clear is that without terrorism insurance, terrorist attacks would dramatically increase direct losses to businesses, employees, and lenders. Furthermore, the government's ability to intervene after a future terrorist attack may be hampered by its lack of claims-processing and payments systems. Even without actual terrorist attacks, some properties and businesses have been unable to find terrorism coverage at any price. These problems are likely to increase as more insurance contracts come up for renewal during the coming year. The resulting economic drag could slow economic recovery and growth. GAO-02-472T. February 27, 2002. 19pp.
Another reason why the private and public sectors must unite in their efforts to prevent and mitigate terorist attacks.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

Tips for Surviving a Terrorist Attack
With top U.S. officials warning that the country is at high risk of terrorist attacks, Americans -- especially federal employees -- are being urged to be especially vigilant and prepared to react in the event of an attack. There is no magic formula that guarantees protection from acts of terrorism, especially if they involve radiation, toxic chemicals or germ warfare. But there are steps anyone can take to reduce the risks. After the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks, National Journal compiled the following basic guide based on extensive interviews with experts. Article by Sydney J. Freedberg Jr., National Journal, appearing in GovExec.com Today, Feb. 13, 2003.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

University of Maryland
College of Law
Thurgood Marshall Law Library
Congressional Research Service Reports on Homeland Security/Terrorism
(Last checked 07/31/17)

U.S. Department of Energy
National Security
The Department has four overriding National Security priorities: insuring the integrity and safety of the country's nuclear weapons; promoting international nuclear safety; advancing nuclear non-proliferation; and, continuing to provided safe, efficient, and effective nuclear power plants for the United States Navy.
(Last checked 07/31/17)

U.S. Department of Homeland Security
(Last checked 07/31/17)

U.S. General Accounting Office
Reports on Homeland Security Issues (Special Collection)
(Last checked 07/31/17)


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