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Criminal Justice Resources :

Environmental Crime


Environmental Crime wikipedia page. Environmental crime is an illegal act which directly harms the environment. International bodies such as the G8, Interpol, EU, UN Environment Programme and the UN Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute have recognised the following environmental crimes:

These crimes are liable for prosecution. Interpol facilitates international police cooperation and assists its member countries in the effective enforcement of national and international environmental laws and treaties. Interpol began fighting environmental crime in 1992.

Environmental Crime entry from the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Vol. 1, 2002.
Provides commentary on Growing Environmental Awareness, Defining Environmental Crime, Occupational Safety And Health Act, Environmental Enforcement Agencies, Three Forms Of Enforcement, State Environmental laws, The Most Common Environmental Crimes, and Case studies of Small Companies And Individual Environmental Crimes.

Selected Web Sites

Coalition Against Wildlife Trafficking
(Last checked 07/14/16)

Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics
Soils have important roles to play in criminal and environmental forensic science. Since the initial concept of using soil in forensic investigations was mooted by Conan Doyle in his Sherlock Holmes stories prior to real-world applications, this branch of forensic science has become increasingly sophisticated and broad. New techniques in chemical, physical, biological, ecological and spatial analysis, coupled with informatics, are being applied to reducing areas of search by investigators, site identification, site comparison and measurement for the eventual use as evidence in court. Soils can provide intelligence, in assisting the determination of the provenance of samples from artifacts, victims or suspects, enabling their linkage to locations or other evidence. They also modulate change in surface or buried cadavers and hence affect the ability to estimate post-mortem or post-burial intervals, and locate clandestine graves. This interdisciplinary volume explores the conceptual and practical interplay of soil and geoforensics across the scientific, investigative and legal fields. Supported by reviews, case-studies from across the world, and reports of original research, it demonstrates the increasing convergence of a wide range of knowledge. It covers conceptual issues, evidence (from recovery to use in court), geoforensics, taphonomy, as well as leading-edge technologies. The application of the resultant soil forensics toolbox is leading to significant advances in improving crime detection, and environmental and national security.
Available to MSU faculty and students via SpringerLink. Karl Ritz, Lorna Dawson, David Miller, eds. Springer. 520pp. 2009.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

DNR 'Fish Cops' Are Eagle-Eyed Officers
Available on Detroit Free Press microfilm
Now one reason DNR conservation officers are so good at making cases is that people who violate game laws tend to underestimate them. Violators may dismiss COs as "fish cops," but most are smart, wily investigators. As for most violators, well, you wouldn't call on them if you needed help building a rocket.
Those so-called fish cops make remarkable cases on very little evidence. One officer proved that a man who poached had lied by showing that the videotape used to make pictures of the deer was manufactured after the man claimed he made the video. COs have tracked a violator's snowmobile for miles by following its tread pattern, and I've seen them sneak up on salmon-snaggers like a mountain lion stalking a deer. Matt Fiorito, Detroit Free Press, August 4, 2005.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

The Economics of Agricultural and Wildlife Smuggling
The United States bans imports of certain agricultural and wildlife goods that can carry pathogens or diseases or whose harvest can threaten wildlife stocks or endanger species. Despite these bans, contraband is regularly uncovered in inspections of cargo containers and in domestic markets. This study characterizes the economic factors affecting agricultural and wildlife smuggling by drawing on inspection and interdiction data from USDA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and existing economic literature. Findings reveal that agricultural and wildlife smuggling primarily include luxury goods, ethnic foods, and specialty goods, such as traditional medicines. Incidents of detected smuggling are disproportionately higher for agricultural goods originating in China and for wildlife goods originating in Mexico. Fragmentary data show that approximately 1 percent of all commercial wildlife shipments to the United States and 0.40 percent of all U.S. wildlife imports by value are refused entry and suspected of being smuggled. Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
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Environmental Crime : A Threat to our Future
Courtesy of the Enviornmental Investigation Agency, 2008.
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Environmental Crime Crisis
New UN Report Puts Staggering Dollar Figures on Environmental Crime Revenues. Crimes from illegal fishing to ivory dealing yields tens of billions of dollars yearly. National Geographic Daily News article.
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Environmental Crimes : Profiting at the Earth's Expense
Article from Environmental Health Perspectives.
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Erin Brokovitch
Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) was in trouble. Serious trouble. Four decades after the world's largest utility started dumping 370 million gallons of cancer-causing chemicals into unlined ponds in Hinkley, California, the company's actions had finally been uncovered. Uncovered by Erin Brockovich (a formerly unemployed, single mother of three working in a California law firm) who wanted to know what medical records had to do with a real estate file. What she found out led to a record-breaking settlement for a group of class-action plaintiffs. Courtesy of Carole Bos and AwesomeStories.com
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European Commission Environmental Crime website
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Fact Sheet: National Strategy for Combating Wildlife Trafficking and Commercial Ban on Trade in Elephant Ivory
Describes details of the three part strategy for combating trade in wildlife and the actions that the U.S. will take to stop trade in elephant ivory to help the survival of the endangered species. From the White House
(Last checked 07/14/16)

A God In Distress - Threats of Poaching & Ivory Trade to the Asian Elephant in India
India Wildlife Trust : This detailed report talks about the threats faced by the Asian Elephant due to the rampant poaching by illegal ivory traders.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

How Do We Curtail White-Collar Environmental Crime?
What's worse, littering or dumping illegal toxic waste dump? Obviously the latter, but convicting the perps in a white-collar environmental crime can be far more difficult than pulling a redneck over because he threw a beer can out of his pickup while driving in front of a patrol car. As with so many illegal activities, political influence and money can go a long way in protecting the most serious abuses while minor offenses can be easily singled out and dealt with expediently. Whit Gibbons, University of Georgia.
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Illegal Dumping Prevention Handbook
EPA document containing ideas along with case studies for local governments, industries, and community leaders for preventing illegal dumping. March 1998.
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Illegal Logging Portal
Provides information on the key issues in the debate around illegal logging and the trade in illegal timber, via news stories and documents, as well as details of Chatham House and external events, and links to other relevant websites.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

Illegal Poaching Database
Animal World Network. Here we collect and archive articles, cases and stats relating to the crime of animal poaching. Poaching and the sale of the illegal bounty is the biggest underground traffic in the US next to Narcotics. It is a 4 billion dollar a year Black Market.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

International Environmental Crime: The Nature and Control of Environmental Black Markets
More than 250 international and regional environmental agreements have been developed in the thirty years since the first landmark United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972. As these threaties have moved beyond simple pledges of mutual scientific cooperation to incorporate substantive control measures such as trade restrictions, so attempts at evasion have increased.... Royal Institute of International Affairs, Sustainable Development Programme. 2002.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

The International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement (INECE)
INECE is a partnership of government and non-government enforcement and compliance practitioners from more than 150 countries.
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International Environmental Crime: The Nature and Control of Environmental Black Markets (Workshop Report)
International Environmental Crime : The Nature and Control of Environmental Black Markets (Background Paper)
More than 250 international and regional environmental agreements have been developed in the thirty years since the first landmark United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972. As these threaties have moved beyond simple pledges of mutual scientific cooperation to incorporate substantive control measures such as trade restrictions, so attempts at evasion have increased.... Royal Institute of International Affairs, Sustainable Development Programme. 2002.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

Interpol Environment Crime Page
Environmental crime is a serious and growing international problem, with criminals violating national and international laws put in place to protect the environment. These criminals are polluting the air, water and land. They are pushing commercially valuable wildlife species closer to extinction and they are significantly impacting the biological integrity of the planet.
Across the world, environmental crime takes on a number of forms which include: poaching, trafficking in ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), trafficking and use of illegal pesticides, illegal diversion of rivers, trafficking in endangered species, and illegal dumping of hazardous waste onto land or in water. Environmental criminals, including those associated with organized crime, regularly cause permanent and extensive damage to ecosystems, which may result in serious human health problems. The incentives to carry out environmental crimes are financial, coupled with a perception, on the part of criminals, that they are unlikely to be caught and face severe penalties. Examples of environmental crimes which have become more common and lucrative are the trade of collectible species and illegal disposal of waste in an effort to avoid legitimate disposal costs, which results in an unfair competitive advantage for the criminals over legitimate, law-abiding businesses.
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Interpol Project Predator
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Investigating Injurious Species Introductions as Environmental Crimes
Available through Proquest Dissertations and Theses
Note: The first 24 pages are available free to preview through Proquest Digital Disserations. MSU faculty, staff, and students have access to the entire dissertation.
Also available in print copy in the MSU Dissertation and Thesis Collection : 140 047 THS
Jill Lynn Finster, M.S., Michigan State University, 2007, 78 pages.
Aquatic invasive species (AIS) threaten the sustainability of Great Lakes ecosystems by degrading habitat, competing with native and naturalized species, and disrupting essential food-web structures. The intentional and accidental release of AIS into the Great Lakes constitute environmental crimes under state and federal statutes. An imprecise definition of "invasive," limited authority through non-comprehensive legislation, inconsistent regulations, and insufficient staff and financial resources hinder the investigation of environmental crimes. Therefore, current enforcement is less effective than it should be to deter future releases. This thesis considers the release, and potential arrival, of three species of non-native Asian carp into the Great Lakes basin as an environmental crime. This example illustrates the legislative gaps and ineffective enforcement mechanisms that collectively contribute to unlawful releases going unpunished. To promote successful prosecution of accidental and intentional releases, investigative procedures must be improved. To this end, the development of a standardized investigative is proposed.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

Michigan State University
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, School of Criminal Justice, and Environment Science and Policy Program
Conservation Criminology
Conservation criminology synergizes the fields of criminology and criminal justice, conservation and natural resource management, and risk and decision-analysis to examine environmental crimes, harms and/or risks. MSU offers a Masters-level certificate in Conservation Criminology consisting of three online courses. Visit the website to learn more about enrolling in courses as well as research and engagement in conservation criminology.
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National Geographic Wildlife Trafficking News Watch
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National Strategy for Combating Wildlife Trafficking
Describes guiding principles and strategic priorities behind U.S. efforts to stem illegal trade in wildlife, especially elephants and rhinoceroses. From the White House.
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Obstacles to Environmental Crime Prosecution
Prosecutors who wish to expand their role in environmental crime prosecution will most likely have to overcome some rather formidable attitudinal obstacles and misconceptions. The experiences of the LA Strike Force may help prosecutors in other jurisdictions chart a path through this complex legal territory. Article courtesy of Theodore M. Hammett and Joel Epstein, 'Lectic Law Library.
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Pace University Law Library Environmental Crimes Research Guide
This guide is designed to assist judges with deciphering the scientific and technical data involved with most environmental criminal offenses. It will also assist legal practitioners in locating resources related to federal environmental criminal law.
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Prosecuting Environmental Crime : L.A. County
Environmental crime is a serious problem for the United States, even though the immediate consequences of an offense may not be obvious or severe. Environmental crimes do have victims. The cumulative costs in environmental damage and the long-range toll in illness, injury, and death may be considerable. Article courtesy of Theodore M. Hammett and Joel Epstein, 'Lectic Law Library.
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The Timber Mafia
Four Corners investigates illegal logging, a highly organised crime that not only destroys entire eco-systems and increases global warming but also deals ruthlessly with anyone standing in its way.
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Toxic Justice : Human Rights, Justice, and Toxic Waste in Cambodia
1999 Human Rights Watch Report.
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Traffic : The Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network
TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network, works to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.
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UNICRI Environmental Crimes website
United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute.
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United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime Environmental Crimes website
Trafficking in wildlife and timber.
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United Nations Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring
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U.S. Department of Justice Environment Crime Section website
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Enforcement Activities
EPA achieves cleaner air, purer water and better-protected land in many different ways. Compliance with the nation's environmental laws is the goal, but enforcement is a vital part of encouraging governments, companies and others who are regulated to meet their environmental obligations. Enforcement deters those who might otherwise profit from violating the law, and levels the playing field with environmentally complaint companies. This web page provides links to civil, cleanup, and criminal enforcement activities.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

Selected Publications Available in the MSU Main Library

Animal investigators : how the world's first wildlife forensics lab is solving crimes and saving endangered species
Laurel A. Neme ; foreword by Richard Leakey.
New York : Scribner, 2009. 230pp.
Main Library HV8079.W58 N46 2009
Inside the Clark R. Bavin U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory lies a rarely seen world, a CSI for wildlife, where a walk-in freezer contains carcasses and animal parts awaiting necropsies (animal autopsies); shelves and drawers hold pills, rugs, carvings, and countless other products made from parts of endangered animals; and a dedicated group of forensic scientists is responsible for victims from thirty thousand animal species.
(P2)Accomplished environmental journalist Laurel A. Neme goes behind the scenes at the wildlife forensics lab -- the only crime lab of its kind -- to reveal how its forensic scientists and the agents of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are working to investigate wildlife crimes, protect endangered species, and stem illegal wildlife trafficking, the third largest illegal trade in the world.
(P3)In three fascinating cases -- headless walrus washed up on the shores of Alaska, black bears killed for the healing powers of their gallbladders, and gorgeous feathered headdresses secretly shipped to the United States from the Amazon -- Neme traces the USFWS's daring undercover investigations and how the scientists' innovative forensic techniques provide conclusive evidence of a crime. Throughout, she underscores the staggering international scope of the supply and demand for wildlife and animal parts.

Crimes Against Nature : Environmental Criminolgy and Ecological Justice (Book)
Rob White. Cullompton : Willan, 2008. 313pp.
Main Library HV6401 .W45 2008
This is an exciting new text on the rapidly expanding subject of environmental criminology and ecological justice. It provides a systematic account and analysis of the key concerns of green criminology, written by one of the leading authorities in the field. The book draws upon the disciplines of environmental studies, environmental sociology and environmental management as well as criminology and socio-legal studies, and uses a wide range of examples of crimes against the environment - ranging from toxic waste, logging, wildlife smuggling, bio-piracy, the use and transport of ozone, depleting substances through to illegal logging and fishing, water pollution and animal abuse."Crimes against Nature" is divided into three parts: Part 1 sets out theoretical approaches and perspectives on the subject; Part 2 explores the (national and international) dimensions of environmental crime and the explanations for it, while Part 3 deals with the range of responses to environmental crime - environmental law enforcement, regulation, environmental crime prevention and the role of global institutions and movements.

The Cyanide Canary (Book)
Joseph Hilldorfer and Robert Dugoni. New York : Free Press, c2004. 336pp.
Main Library Browsing Collection HV6404.I2 H55 2004
Amazon.com description: "The Cyanide Canary is the true story of a horrific crime - of a brave young man left for dead, an unscrupulous business mogul, and the relentless EPA investigator who fought to overcome injustice." "On a crisp summer morning in Soda Springs, Idaho, twenty-year-old Scott Dominguez kissed his fiancee goodbye and went to work for Allan Elias, the owner of Evergreen Resources, an enterprise Dominguez thought was in the business of producing fertilizer from mining waste. A former high school wrestler blessed with Tom Cruise-like good looks, Dominguez seemed to have unlimited potential, but by eleven o'clock that morning he was fighting for his life, pulled unconscious from a cyanide-laced storage tank and not expected to live through the night." "In Seattle, Special Agent Joseph Hilldorfer of the Environmental Protection Agency was given the job of finding out what happened to Dominguez and why. Initially Hilldorfer did not want the case, still frustrated by an intense two-year investigation that concluded with corporate polluters walking out of a federal courthouse free." "Hilldorfer and his partner, Special Agent Bob Wojnicz, joined forces with seasoned Boise Assistant U.S. Attorney George Breitsameter and an indefatigable, brilliant young attorney from the Department of Justice's Environmental Crimes Section named David Uhlmann. Together they would uncover the horrifying truths and build the criminal case against Elias." Hilldorfer, Uhlmann, and the government trial team embarked on an epic courtroom battle that would stretch them to the limits. What began as a struggle for justice for one young man became a fight by the EPA for its very ability to enforce the nation's environmental laws and to bring environmental polluters to justice. In the balance was whether Allan Elias would ever spend a day in jail.

Environmental Crime : A Reader (Book)
Rob White, editor. Devon, UK ; Portland : Willan Pub., 2009. 743pp.
Main Library HV6401 .E58 2009
Environmental crime is a topic of growing international importance. This book provides a general introduction and overview of this issue by presenting key articles and source material in the emerging area of green or environmental criminology. The focus for the collection is environmental crime, itself an ambiguous concept, and one that has been defined in the broadest terms to include environmental harms of many different kinds. The articles and extracts reprinted in this Reader span a wide range of concerns - from issues of pollution, illegal disposal of waste and logging, through to prosecution of specific environmental offences and crime prevention as this pertains to trade in endangered species. The book includes articles and extracts that challenge existing conceptualisations of environmental crime and human rights, as well as those that provide insight into what the 'greening' of research and scholarship means for criminology as a field. The Reader draws upon work from many different sources, and from many different disciplines and perspectives. This reader is divided into three main sections such as: conceptualising environmental crime; dynamics of environmental crime; and, environmental law enforcement. It is the most inclusive and up-to-date collection of its kind and will be an essential resource for students, academics, policy-makers, environmental managers, police, magistrates and others with a general interest in environmental issues.

Environmental Crime : a Sourcebook (Book)
Ronald G. Burns, Michael J. Lynch. New York : LFB Scholarly Pub. LLC, 2004.
Main Library Stacks HV6403 .B87 2004
Environmental Crime: A Sourcebook provides ideas, tools, and data to investigate environmental offenses. Burns and Lynch urge readers to recognize the availability of a wide array of data regarding environmental offenses and provide bibliographic tools to locate this data. They also provide data sets and examples of data available from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies charged with enforcing environmental laws. Specific sections describe EPA resources, accessing and downloading EPA and other environmental law compliance and violation data, methods of compiling EPA data, actual environmental crime data sets, and research that can be performed using these data. Written in a non-technical manner, the book is designed to provide readers from all backgrounds with an understanding of environmental crime and the avenues by which it can be recognized and researched.

Environmental Crime and Criminality : Theoretical and Practical Issues (Book)
Sally M. Edwards, Terry D. Edwards, Charles B. Fields, eds. New York : Garland Pub., 1996. 274pp.
Main Library Stacks HV6403 .E59 1996
Publisher's description: The 11 articles in this volume represent the cutting edge issues in the theory and practice of environmental criminal enforcement on the federal and state levels. The authors review EPA criminal, civil, and administrative enforcement; prosecutorial challenges and public protection; toxic dumping in Mexico; Native American and Ecofeminist perspectives; radical environmentalism and crime; and organized crime in relation to environmental issues. Appropriate for both undergraduate and graduate students in criminology, political science, public administration, and environmental law. Annotation by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.

Environmental Crime : Enforcement, Policy, and Social Responsibility (Book)
Mary Clifford, ed. Gaithersburg, Md. : Aspen Publishers, 1998. 532pp.
Main Library Stacks HV6403 .E595 1998
Publisher's description: This valuable addition to environmental crime literature provides a compilation of interdisciplinary research while exploring the enforcement of environmental protection legislation. Ten leading contributors to the text present the history of environmental protection efforts; one of the first comprehensive discussions on the criminal justice system's response to this unique type of crime; and illustrative case studies on the most controversial environmental issues.
Amazon.com provides the full text of the first chapter.

Environmental Crime: Evidence Gathering and Investigative Techniques (Book)
Steven C. Drielak ; with a foreword by Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. Springfield, Ill. : C.C. Thomas, c1998. 230pp.
Main Library Stacks HV6403 .D75 1998
NCJRS description: This book offers the new criminal environmental investigator numerous investigative techniques that can be applied to a variety of environmental crime investigations. Each of the investigative techniques and evidence-gathering procedures described in this book has been successfully used in criminal environmental prosecutions. The author also offers information on the numerous safety requirements that must be followed so as to safely and properly collect physical evidence at an environmental crime scene. A chapter on the criminal environmental investigator addresses training, equipment, standard operating procedures, and locating and using resources. A chapter on search warrants describes methods for collecting evidence sufficient to establish probable cause as the basis for obtaining a search warrant. Other topics on search warrants address planning, the search-warrant team, the briefing, the staging, warrant execution, surreptitious entry, and postsearch investigation. A chapter on hazardous-waste-abandonment investigations provides job descriptions of the investigative team, techniques for various investigative tasks, and suggestions for abandoned trailer investigations and hazardous waste tanker investigations. Remaining chapters focus on drum-tracing techniques, sampling for criminal evidence, chemical analysis of criminal evidence, and hazardous waste "sting" operations. 54 notes, a table of hazardous substances and statutory authority, a subject index, and a glossary.

Environmental Crime : the Criminal Justice System's Role in Protecting the Environment (Book)
Yingyi Situ, David Emmons. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, c2000. 218pp.
Gast Business Library KF3775 .S549 2000
Amazon.com description: “Yingyi Situ and David Emmons in Environmental Crime address a neglected area in Criminology and Criminal Justice and do so with masterful attention to details of environmental law, law enforcement, enthralling examples and up-to-date cases. Well-written, scholarly and incisive in its commentary and stellar in organization, their work will be well received by both undergraduate and graduate students.” – Frank E. Hagan, Ph.D., Chair, Graduate Program in Administration of Justice, Professor of Sociology/Criminal Justice, Mercyhurst College, Pennsylvania We and our environment are at risk. Air, water, and soil pollution, hazardous waste disposal, global warming, acid rain, and reduction of the ozone layer threaten the natural environment and endanger people’s health. Within the last decade, however, environmental violations have been defined as crimes and violators viewed as criminals; and criminal prosecution of the accused and criminal sanctions against the convicted have accelerated. This accessibly written book examines the criminalization of environmental wrong-doing. Designed as a textbook for environmental crime courses at the undergraduate or beginning graduate levels, it is comprehensive and logically organized. The text explores the nature, causes, investigation, prosecution, and prevention of environmental crime. Special emphasis is placed on the human, economic, social, and psychological impacts of the environmental crime by corporations, criminal organizations, the government, and individuals. Although examples throughout the book reflect not only North America but the world, a final chapter is devoted to global environmental law. The chapter also reviews promising approaches being used by other nations in fighting environmental crime.

Introduction to Environmental Forensics (Book)
San Diego : Academic Press, c2002. 560pp.
Location: Main Library Stacks TD193.4 .I54 2002
NCJRS description: This book provides information on environmental forensics, which provide the fact basis for any public inquiry related to environmental matters. Environmental forensics seeks the cause and time of contamination, the extensiveness of contamination, the validity of tests, evidence of fraud, and the levels of exposure to people. Chapter 1 discusses the common contexts in which environmental forensic investigations occur, including liability allocation at hazardous waste sites, site assessments for property transfers, insurance litigation, and toxic torts. Chapter 2 describes the techniques used to acquire the historical documents necessary to reconstruct a narrative site history. Chapter 3 focuses on the acquisition and interpretation of the photographic images that are frequently used to identify potential contaminant sources. Chapter 4 discusses the potential biases that can be introduced into soil gas surveys, soil sampling, and groundwater data, both in field sampling and in the laboratory. Chapter 5 describes the use of isotope measurements, which is becoming an integral component of many environmental forensic investigations. Chapters 6 and 7 describe forensic techniques for the two most common contaminant types: petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. In Chapter 8, soil and groundwater models used for environmental forensic investigations are described. Chapter 9 focuses on air modeling for forensic purposes. Chapter 10 summarizes statistical tests for comparing data sets and evaluating temporal or spatial relationships. Chapter 11 discusses particulate pattern recognition techniques used for source identification. Chapter 12 focuses on principal components analysis and polytopic vector analysis, which have been successfully used in a variety of media. Appendixes, index.

Law Enforcement Response to Environmental Crime (Book)
Joel Epstein, Theodore M. Hammett ; with the assistance of Laura Collins. Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, [1995]. 79pp.
MSU Government Documents Library (U.S. Documents Collection 3 West) J 28.23:L 41

The Limits of Law : the Public Regulation of Private Pollution (Book)
Peter Cleary Yeager Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1991. 369pp.
Gast Business Library and MSU College of Law Library KF3775 .Y4 1990
Publisher's description: This book examines the systematic constraints on U.S. law enforcement agencies' efforts to regulate business behavior. It looks specifically at the postwar development of laws regulating water pollution and at the Environmental Protection Agency's efforts to enforce them. The discussion traces the factors leading to legal change and analyzes the ways in which the impacts of environmental laws vary from their stated purposes and goals, even under relatively favorable conditions for their enforcement. It shows how legal processes and social relations mutually constrain and shape one another as the state struggles to manage often contradictory responsibilities, in this case to encourage both economic growth and environmental welfare. The book is principally directed at social scientists and their students in the areas of sociology of law, public policy, political sociology, political economy and criminology. It is also directed at legal and policy practitioners in environmental regulation and educated lay readers concerned with environmental policy.

Local Prosecution of Environmental Crime (Book)
Theodore M. Hammett and Joel Epstein. Washington, D.C. : Prepared for the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Dept. of Justice, by Abt Associates Inc., [1993]. 111pp.
MSU Government Documents Library (U.S. Documents Collection 3 West) J 28.23:P 94/3

"Love Canal Six Years Later - The Legal Legacy". J. S. Albanese. Federal Probation, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 53-58, June 1984. Available online via Hein Online.
NCJRS description: Using Love Canal, N.Y., as a case study, this paper illustrates the difficulty of doing justice in cases of exposure to hazardous waste, as it examines issues of causation, prosecution, sentencing, and prevention. Love Canal was begun in 1894 to connect the Niagara River to Lake Ontario, but the project was soon abandoned. Hooker Chemical Company bought the property in 1940 and dumped chemical wastes there from 1947 to 1952; the U.S. Army also dumped wastes there during the same period. In 1953, Hooker sold the property to the Niagara School Board for $1; the deed contained a waiver of responsibility for any injuries that might result from buried chemicals. Hooker does not appear to have acted irresponsibly; in fact, it is the school board and the City of Niagara Falls which failed to act cautiously. Perhaps the major reason for the continuing legal entanglement surrounding Love Canal is that both the Federal and State suits are against Hooker, and Hooker is the wrong target. The limited avenues for prosecution in cases like Love Canal are discussed, and also considered is the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which established a $1.6 billion 'superfund' to be administered by the Environmental Protection Agency to clean up hazardous waste sites. Governments should be advised to pursue a policy of compensation for hazardous waste victims until such problems can be prevented through deterrence or reformation. Twenty-three references are provided.

Publications Focusing on Environmental Justice/Racism

Dumping in Dixie : Race, Class, and Environmental Quality (Book)
Robert D. Bullard. Boulder, Colo : Westview Press, c2000. 3rd edition, 234pp.
Main Library Stacks HC107.A13 B85 2000
Amazon.com Description: Chronicles the efforts of five black communities in Texas, West Virginia, Louisiana, and Alabama to protect themselves from industrial pollution. Bullard (sociology, U. of California) links their struggle to that of social justice.

Environment and Society : the Enduring Conflict (Book)
Allan Schnaiberg, Kenneth Alan Gould. New York : St. Martin's Press, c1994. 255pp.
Main Library Stacks GF49 .S38 1994
Amazon.com description: Environment and Society : The Enduring Conflict explores environmental problems - coherently and theoretically - from both a political and economic point of view. By illustrating the root causes of environmental disruption - global warming, soil depletion, desertification, water and air pollution - the authors show how to recognize and understand the complex contemporary problems involved in caring for the environment. The book offers both a coherent perspective for solving ecological problems of all kinds and a systematic approach that shows how organizations, institutions and individuals can push for environmental protection reforms. In three sections Schnaiberg and Gould ask the questions: Why should we be concerned? How does environmental disorganization get created? What has been done? And, finally, what can be done?

The Environmental Justice Reader : Politics, Poetics, & Pedagogy (Book)
Joni Adamson, Mei Mei Evans, & Rachel Stein, eds. Tucson, Arz. : University of Arizona Press, c2002. 395pp.
Main Library Stacks GE220 .E585 2002
Description from Back Cover: From the First National People of Color Congress on Environmental Leadership to WTO street protests of the new millennium, environmental justice activists have challenged the mainstream movement by linking social inequalities to the uneven distribution of environmental dangers. Grassroots movements in poor communities and communities of color strive to protect neighborhoods and worksites from environmental degradation and struggle to gain equal access to the natural resources that sustain their cultures. This book examines environmental justice in its social, economic, political, and cultural dimensions in both local and global contexts, with special attention paid to intersections of race, gender, and class inequality. The first book to link political studies, literary analysis, and teaching strategies, it offers a multivocal approach that combines perspectives from organizations such as the Southwest Network for Environmental and Economic Justice and the International Indigenous Treaty Council with the insights of such notable scholars as Devon Pena, Giovanna Di Chiro, and Valerie Kuletz, and also includes a range of newer voices in the field. This collection approaches environmental justice concerns from diverse geographical, ethnic, and disciplinary perspectives, always viewing environmental issues as integral to problems of social inequality and oppression. It offers new case studies of native Alaskans' protests over radiation poisoning; Hispanos' struggles to protect their land and water rights; Pacific Islanders' resistance to nuclear weapons testing and nuclear waste storage; and the efforts of women employees of maquiladoras to obtain safer living and working environments along the U.S.-Mexican border. The selections also include cultural analyses of environmental justice arts, such as community art and greening projects in inner-city Baltimore, and literary analyses of writers such as Jimmy Santiago Baca, Linda Hogan, Barbara Neely, Nez Perce orators, Ken Saro-Wiwa, and Karen Yamashita--artists who address issues such as toxicity and cancer, lead poisoning of urban African American communities, and Native American struggles to remove dams and save salmon.

From the Ground Up : Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement (Book)
Luke W. Cole and Sheila R. Foster. New York : New York University Press, 2001. 244pp.
Main Library Stacks GE180 .C65 2001
Book description: When Bill Clinton signed an Executive Order on Environmental Justice in 1994, the phenomenon of environmental racism--the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards, particularly toxic waste dumps and polluting factories, on people of color and low-income communities--gained unprecedented recognition. Behind the President's signature, however, lies a remarkable tale of grassroots activism and political mobilization. Today, thousands of activists in hundreds of locales are fighting for their children, their communities, their quality of life, and their health.
From the Ground Up critically examines one of the fastest growing social movements in the United States, the movement for environmental justice. Tracing the movement's roots, Luke Cole and Sheila Foster combine long-time activism with powerful storytelling to provide gripping case studies of communities across the U.S--towns like Kettleman City, California; Chester, Pennsylvania; and Dilkon, Arizona--and their struggles against corporate polluters. The authors effectively use social, economic and legal analysis to illustrate the historical and contemporary causes for environmental racism. Environmental justice struggles, they demonstrate, transform individuals, communities, institutions and even the nation as a whole.

Greening of Criminology, a sample chapter from Criminology by Routledge.

The Meaning of Green: Contrasting Criminological Perspectives
Michael Lynch, University of South Florida, USA, and Paul B. Stretsky, Colorado State University, USA Sage article description: Previous discussions of green criminology have not defined the meaning of the term 'green'. Here we investigate alternative definitions of this term, focusing attention on two contrasting definitions. One definition is aligned with corporate interests and emerged through corporate redefinitions of green environmentalism; we provide examples of the 'green' criminology that resulted. We then offer a contrasting environmental justice definition. This alternative concept highlights common elements in social movements concerned with environmental justice while emphasizing these movements' commitment to simultaneously incorporating race, class and gender-oriented issues into green criminology. Theoretical Criminology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 217-238 (2003). Available online to MSU faculty and students and other Sage subscribers.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States : a National Report on the Racial and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites
Commission for Racial Justice, United Church of Christ. New York, N.Y. : Public Data Access : Inquiries to the Commission, 1987. 69pp. Main Library Stacks TD811.5 .T695 1987

Toxic Wastes and Race at Twenty : a Report Prepared for the United Church of Christ Justice & Witness Ministries
2007. 160pp. Main Library TD811.5 .B95 2007
Environmental injustice in minority communities is as much or more prevalent today than 20 years ago, according to a follow-up study to the landmark "Toxic Waste and Race in the United States" report that put the environmental justice movement on the map two decades ago. The findings show that 20 years later, disproportionately large numbers of people of color still live in hazardous waste host communities, and that people of color are not equally protected by environmental laws. The new report points to the dismal post-Katrina response in New Orleans as one example of unequal treatment of minorities in hazardous waste emergencies. The findings also show that environmental laws don't protect minority communities any more than they did 20 years ago when the report was originally commissioned.
(Last checked 07/14/16)

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