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Criminal Justice Resources :

Police Use of Force

Amnesty International
Type police brutality in the search box to retrieve recent news items from around the world.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Brutality in Blue
http://www.amnestyusa.org/node/87367 Homophobia can wear a badge and carry a gun, according to a new Amnesty International report on police brutality against lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgenders. The research shows how stonewalling perpetuates the problem. Article by Walter Armstrong, Amnesty International Magazine.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 1999 National Survey
Presents data on the nature and characteristics of citizen contacts with the police over a 12-month period. Findings are provided from a nationally representative survey of nearly 90,000 residents age 16 or older. Detailed information is presented on face-to-face contacts with the police including traffic stops, arrests, handcuffing and incidents of police use-of-force. Discusses relevance of the findings to the issue of racial profiling. The report provides demographic characteristics of citizens and police officers involved in traffic stops and use of force encounters. February 2001. NCJ 184957.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 2002 National Survey
April 1, 2005 NCJ 207845
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 2005 National Survey
April 29, 2007 NCJ 215243
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Controlling Police Use of Excessive Force: The Role of the Police Psychologist
The role of police psychologists in identifying officers at risk for excessive force and in preventing its use; the factors that contribute to use of excessive force by the police. Ellen M. Scrivner, NIJ Research in Brief, NCJ 150063, October 1994, 14pp.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Web page by Dr. Geoffrey P. Alpert, Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of South Carolina and expert on deadly force and other related topics.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Deadly Force : What We Know (Book).
A Practitioner's Desk Reference on Police-Involved Shootings
William A. Geller and Michael S. Scott, Police Executive Research Forum, 1992. Available in the MSU Main Library stacks.

Early Warning Systems: Responding to the Problem Police Officer
Published by the National Institute of Justice, July 2001.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Investigation of the Cleveland Division of Police
Found “a pattern or practice of using unreasonable force in violation of the fourth amendment”, including “the unnecessary and excessive use of deadly force, including shootings and head strikes with impact weapons”; “the unnecessary, excessive or retaliatory use of less lethal force including Tasers, chemical spray and fists”; and “excessive force against persons who are mentally ill or in crisis, including in cases where the officers were called exclusively for a welfare check”. U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. December 4, 2014.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department
U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. March 4, 2015.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Mapping Police Violence
An attempt to gather information about police violence against blacks.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Men, Women, and the Police Use of Excessive Force: A Tale of Two Genders
This study documents huge gender differences in police brutality and misconduct, whether measured by citizen complaints, sustained allegations, or civil liability payouts. The data is clear: women officers cost their communities less in human and financial terms, and police departments can't afford to ignore this data any longer. National Center for Women and Policing, April 2002.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

New Untouchables: How America Sanctions Police Violence
John Desantis. Noble Press, September 1994. Available in the MSU Library stacks.
The New Untouchables thoughtfully reviews traditional police roles and police culture, the difficult but necessary task of defining excessive use of force, and the role of cultural stereotypes, media exigencies, and the war on drugs in justifying police overreaction.

Police Brutality Entry from Wikipedia
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Police Coercion : Application of the Force Continuum (Book)
William Terrill. New York : LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC, c2001. 287pp.
Main Library Stacks HV7936.D54 T47 2001
Terrill studies police use of force in two cities with observational data. He examines individual police-citizen encounters, tests theoretical perspectives on force, and offers the Resistance Force Comparative Scale to examine how officers apply force. Officers use more force on male, nonwhite, poor, young, and intoxicated citizens. Surprisingly, however, they are not more forceful toward disrespectful citizens. Officers also differentially escalate and de-escalate force according the nature of resistance. Interestingly, they do not jump at the opportunity to use force on resistant suspects, offering instead a second chance to comply before applying increased force.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Police Practices and Civil Rights in New York City
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. August 2000.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Police Practices and Civil Rights in New York City
New York Police Department Response to the Draft Report of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Police Use of Force:
Addressing Community Racial Tensions
This Bulletin offers some practical recommendations to city officials, police executives, and community leaders on steps they can take to prevent community racial conflict associated with police use of force incidents and improve police policies and practices. Examples of CRS assistance to local communities are also included. U.S. Department of Justice, Community Relations Service. Revised August 2002.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Police Use of Force In America, 2001
The Final Report of the National Police Use of Force Database Project, International Association of Chiefs of Police. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Police Use of Force: Official Reports, Citizen Complaints, and Legal Consequences (Book).
Antony M. Pate, Lorie A. Fridell and Edwin E. Hamilton. Police Foundation, November 1993. Available in the MSU Main Library stacks.

Police vehicles and firearms : instruments of deadly force (Book)
Geoffrey P. Alpert, Lorie A. Fridell. Prospect Heights, IL : Waveland Press, c1992.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Portland Police Bureau: Officer-Involved Shootings and In-Custody Deaths
The Independent Police Review Division of the City Auditor's office retained PARC to conduct a review of the 32 officer-involved shootings and two in-custody deaths that occurred in the City of Portland between January 1, 1997 and June 30, 2000. The comprehensive report features detailed findings, and 89 recommendations, regarding that police department's training, tactics, policies, investigations, and review of these types of cases. Police Assessment Resource Center. August 2003.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

Understanding police use of force : officers, suspects, and reciprocity (Book)
Geoffrey P. Alpert, Roger G. Dunham. Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Understanding Police use of Force focuses on the extraordinary and rare event that develops when physical force is used by the police. Whenever police officers come into contact with citizens, there is always a chance that the encounter will digress to one in which force is used on a suspect. Fortunately, most police activities do not result in the use of force, but those that do take on an interesting pattern of interaction between the officer and the citizen. This volume presents a brief survey of prior research on police use of force as well as original data reported for the first time. The original data on police use of force include the Force Factor, or the relative use of force compared to the level of suspect resistance. The data also includes the sequential order of the event and a view from the suspect’s perspective. The book also proposes a new conceptual framework for examining and assessing police use of force: the Authority Maintenance Theory.
(Last checked 03/17/14)

For additional books on police brutality, search MAGIC. Try typing in the following subject headings under LC Subject. Police Brutality


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