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Criminal Justice Resources :

White Collar Crime and Fraud


Web Sites | Articles and Publications

 

White Collar Crime entry from Wikipedia.


White Collar Crime via the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Vol. 1, 2002.
Includes commentary on a variety of topics such as: Healthcare Fraud, Government Fraud, Financial Institution Fraud, Frank W. Abagnale, Telemarketing Fraud, Insurance Fraud, Bankruptcy Fraud, Securities Fraud, Securities Regulation, and Corporate Fraud.


Thousands of white-collar criminals across the country are no longer being prosecuted in federal court and, in many cases, not at all, leaving a trail of frustrated victims and potentially billions of dollars in fraud and theft losses. It’s the untold story of the Bush administration’s massive restructuring of the FBI after the terror attacks of 9/11.” Source : Paul Shukovsky, Tracy Johnson and Daniel Lathrop, "Post-9/11 FBI has little time for fraud; Restructuring to fight terror leaves fewer agents for domestic crimes and rights abuses", Houston Chronicle, April 11, 2007.


Fraud is the crime or offense of deliberately deceiving another in order to damage them -- usually, to obtain property or services from him unjustly. Fraud can be committed through many methods, including mail, wire, phone, and the Internet. Visit the Fraud entry from Wikipedia for more information.


Participants in the 2006 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse survey estimated that 5 percent of annual revenues was lost due to fraud. Applying this 5 percent to the estimated 2006 U.S. Gross Domestic Product would translate to approximately $652 billion in fraud losses. Other findings include:


The Dirty Little Secret of Store Returns : Don't be surprised if you try to return something to your favorite store and the cashier politely says, "Return declined!" If you hear those words, you'll know you're on the store's electronic blacklist. You may have loved the way those pants looked in the store, but once you got home, you realized they just didn't fit. You may be stuck. The newest retail trend is to use special electronic systems to track the number of times and the dates specific customers make a return or exchange, as well as the dollar value of those items, and then determine based on that information if the customer is allowed to make another return.

Retailers who use the system, which currently includes KB Toys, Express clothing stores, and Sports Authority among others, say it will not only catch shoplifters, but also nab those who "wardrobe"--buy something, wear it once or twice, and then return it for a full refund. The stores have a name for excessive returns: fraud. And fraud is a major drain on business. In 2003, retailers lost nearly $30 billion to various types of fraud; about half of this may be related to bad returns, according to Richard Hollinger, a professor of criminology at the University of Florida in Gainesville. Source: Washington Post, Nov. 7, 2004.



Web Sites

Abuse of Power by Corporate and Governmental Elites
http://www.paulsjusticepage.com/elite-deviance.htm
Criminology and Criminal Justice focus on crimes on the streets and give passing mention to crimes in the suites, even though all the research indicates that white collar crimes cost far more than street crime. Unfortunately, the government collects almost no data on the toll taken by corporate crimes, even though there are annual reports on street crime from the FBI and the National Crime Victimization Survey. There's enough of it, though, that Fortune magazine had a cover story: Send Them To Jail [3/13/2002] - "They lie; they cheat; they steal and they've been getting away with it for too long." Rather than go to jail, corporations sponsored tough on crime laws that help a variety of industries from private prisons to telephone companies to construction and prison supply. Three strikes does not apply to corporate 'citizens' who continue to be called before Congress to testify, while convicted felons loose their right to vote. Corporate tax breaks and subsidies are not considered 'welfare' or even 'aid to dependent corporations.' Further, corporate crime isn't covered on TV news, reinforcing the idea that street crime is the only serious crime worth mentioning. Paul Leighton, Eastern Michigan University.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

AICPA Antifraud & Corporate Responsibility Resource Center
http://www.aicpa.org/antifraud/
Some of the biggest challenges facing business today are re-establishing confidence among investors, promoting ethics and integrity in the workplace, and establishing clarity in reporting procedures. This resource center will give you the tools and information you need to combat fraud — whatever your role in the business community.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

The Anti-Counterfeiting and Product Protection Program (A-CAPPP)
http://www.a-cappp.msu.edu/
The first and preeminent academic body focusing upon the complex global issues of anti-counterfeiting and product protection of all products, across all industries, in all markets and strategies to work effectively to detect, deter, and respond to the crime. The counterfeit food industry is worth about $49 billion a year, according to the World Customs Institute, and it involves everything from fine food to boxed fruit juice. "Products are moving around the world so fast now that there is just ample opportunity," says John Spink, a food-fraud expert at Michigan State University. "And the demand for inexpensive food virtually guarantees that the problem will persist and grow." With that reality in mind, MSU has launched the Anti-Counterfeiting and Product Protection Program (ACAPPP). The first program of its kind, ACAPPP will employ a range of experts, from food safety and criminal justice to international business and engineering, to develop an international hub for anti-counterfeiting strategies. Source: "The Fade Food Detectives". Article by Jeneen Interlandi appearing in Newsweek Online, February 8, 2010.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Coalition Against Insurance Fraud
http://www.insurancefraud.org/
The United States' only anti-fraud watchdog that speaks for consumers, insurance companies, legislators, regulators and others.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Coalition Against Insurance Fraud
Insurance Fraud Hall of Shame
http://www.insurancefraud.org/hallofshame.htm
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Commodity Futures Trading Commission
http://www.cftc.gov/cftc/cftchome.htm
The agency protects market participants against manipulation, abusive trade practices and fraud.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Communications Fraud Control Association
http://www.cfca.org/
CFCA is a not-for-profit global educational association working to help combat communications fraud.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Corporate Crime Reporter
http://www.corporatecrimereporter.com/
Provides highlights from a legal newsletter.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Crimes of Persuasion: Schemes, Scams, Frauds
http://www.crimes-of-persuasion.com/
"In-depth fraud coverage" of crimes based on conning people, such as pyramid schemes, bank fraud, Internet fraud, phone scams, chain letters, computer fraud, credit card fraud, money laundering, and telemarketing fraud.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Executive Fraud Blog Launched
http://www.executivefraud.com/
(Last checked 02/12/07)

Financial Scandals
http://www.ex.ac.uk/~RDavies/arian/scandals/
Roy Davies, a librarian at University of Exeter, United Kingdom, has put together an impressive collection of links relating to financial scandals. The links are divided into Classic Financial Scandals, Political Corruption, Organized Crime (Mafia and Yakuza), Money Laundering, and Regulatory Organizations. Recent scandals such as BCCI, Barings, Sumitomo and Bre-X are covered. Source: Scout Report for Business and Economics, February 26, 1998.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Fraud, Inc.
http://money.cnn.com/news/specials/corruption/
Fraud, Inc. is on the CNN Money website. With regard to the recent national corporate scandals, it provides brief abstract type information on those “busted”, cases settled, those under investigation, CEOs in trouble, and the investigators. It also provides links to the latest few days stories relating to the scandals and the SEC. There are also links to related stories on Fortune.com. Source: Law Resource Exchange, Nov. 18, 2002.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Internet ScamBusters Ezine
http://www.scambusters.org/
A free electronic newsletter (zine) to help you protect yourself from Internet scams, misinformation and hype. Web site has information on how to subscribe as well as selections from back issues.
Also listed under Cybercrime.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

IRS Tax Fraud Alerts
http://www.irs.gov/compliance/enforcement/article/0,,id=121259,00.html
"If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is!" Seek expert advice before you subscribe to any scheme that offers instant wealth or exemption from your obligation as a United States Citizen to pay taxes. Buying into a tax evasion scheme can be very costly. From the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Criminal Investigation unit.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

National Fraud Information Center
Internet Fraud Watch Site
http://www.fraud.org/
Created by the National Consumers League to counter telemarketing and Internet fraud, the National Fraud Information Center (NFIC) web site offers tips for consumers to avoid common telemarketing and Internet fraud. The site also provides a list of the most popular telemarketing scams. There is also a special section with tips to help the elderly avoid fraud. At the site, visitors may submit questions and report suspected cases of fraud.
Also listed under Cybercrime.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

National White Collar Crime Center
http://www.nw3c.org/
The National White Collar Crime Center (NW3C) provides support services to state and local law enforcement for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of high-tech and economic crime.
Also listed under Cybercrime.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Nigeria: the 419 Coalition Site
http://home.rica.net/alphae/419coal/
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Pyramid Scheme Alert
http://www.pyramidschemealert.org/
The first international organization to expose, study and prevent illegal pyramid schemes.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Quatloos!: Scams and Frauds Exposed
http://www.quatloos.com/
"This website seeks to educate you about certain types of financial frauds, how these deals really work, and how you can manage your risk of financial fraud." Banking, insurance, tax, and off-shore, and multi-level marketing scams are discussed. The Cyber-Museum has documents related to tax protester cases, the Nigerian Scam, and the Omega Trust and Trading bank debenture scam. There is also information on how to report suspected frauds. Source: Librarians' Index to the Internet.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

White-Collar Crime: an Overview (Cornell University, Summer 2002)
http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/white_collar.html
Cornell's Legal Information Institute has compiled this new resource with legal resources regarding white collar crime.
(Last checked 10/08/09)


Articles, Speeches, or Publications

1996 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) Report to the Nation
http://www.acfe.com/documents/Report_to_the_Nation.pdf
(Last checked 10/08/09)

2002 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) Report to the Nation
http://www.your-call.com.au/information/documents/CFE2002.pdf
Over half of the fraud in the survey produced losses in excess of $100,000 & one in six caused losses in excess of $1 million. The average loss in small companies costs $127,500. Average fraud operated for 18 months before detection. Most common method for detection "occupational" fraud was a tip from an employee, a customer, vendor or anonymous source. Fraud was detected by tips 41.1% of the time. Internal audit was the second most common method of detecting fraud at 18.6.% of the time.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

2004 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse
http://www.your-call.com.au/information/documents/CFE2004.pdf
This study covers 508 cases of occupational fraud totaling over $761 million in losses. All information was provided by the Certified Fraud Examiners (CFEs) who investigated these cases. Occupational frauds in our study were much more likely to be detected by a tip than through other means such as internal audits, external audits, and internal controls. Among frauds committed by owners and executives, which tend to be the most costly, over half of all cases were identified by a tip. Confidential reporting mechanisms reduce fraud losses significantly. The median loss among organizations that had anonymous reporting mechanisms was $56,500. In organizations that did not have established reporting procedures, the median loss was more than twice as high. While Sarbanes-Oxley only requires publicly traded companies to establish confidential reporting mechanisms for employees, our data strongly suggests that these programs should also embrace third-party sources such as customers and vendors. Among cases that were detected by a tip, 60% of the tips came from employees, 20% of the tips came from customers, 16% came from vendors, and 13% came from anonymous sources.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

2006 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse
http://www.your-call.com.au/information/documents/ACFE2006.pdf
This study is based on data compiled from 1,134 cases of occupational fraud that were investigated between January 2004 and January 2006. Information from each case was reported by a Certified Fraud Examiner who investigated the case. It found again that the most common method of fraud detection was by a tip. There were 479 organizations that had fraud hotlines or other anonymous reporting mechanisms at the time the frauds occurred, compared to 581 that did not. Organizations with hotlines had a median loss of $100,000 per scheme and detected their frauds within 15 months of inception. By contrast, organizations without hotlines suffered twice the median loss — $200,000 — and took 24 months to detect their frauds.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Beanie Baby Scams and Identity Thefts
http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/09/biztech/technology/22coop.html
There is a very large body of legitimate business and electronic commerce activity on the internet, but the web also is a location where one can easily fall victim to fraud and scams. A New York Times article discusses a number of swindling activities that are marketed either through websites or email messages. Online article by Michael Cooper from the September 22, 1999 issue of New York Times.
Also listed under Identity Theft.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Business Fraud a Growing Issue
http://fleetowner.com/news/fleet_business_fraud_growing/index.html
Business fraud in the United States, including accounting abuses, embezzlement, and false disability claims, is having a huge impact on the nation's economy, according to several sources. The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) estimates that this year some 6% of total U.S. business revenues will be lost as a result of occupational fraud and abuse. When applied to the U.S. Gross Domestic Product, that translates into approximately $600 billion in losses annually, or $4,500 per employee, the group said. Article by Sean Kilcarr, Fleet Owner, July 10, 2002.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Check and Card Fraud
http://www.popcenter.org/problems/pdfs/check_and_card_fraud.pdf
This document describes the problem of check and card fraud, and reviews factors that increase the risk of it. While there are some obvious differences between check and card fraud, the limitations and opportunities for fraud and its prevention and control by local police are similar enought to warrant addressing them together. Some cards, such as debt cards, are used and processed in a similar way to checks, and electronic checks are processed in a similar way to cards, so that traditional distinction between cards and checks is eroding.... Graeme R. Newman. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2003. 80pp.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Computer Forensics & Electronic Discovery:
The Corporate Security Guide for Recovering Electronic Digital Evidence
http://web.archive.org/web/20031207085958/
http://www.ci-pinkerton.com/news/pdf/Pinkerton+-+Computer+Forensics+WP.pdf

The recovery of digital data is increasingly becoming more critical to corporations in the prosecution of corporate fraud, investigating the theft of trade secrets, monitoring illegal and insider trading, combating the improper solicitation of employees, as well as in more traditional matters such as employment law litigation.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Consumer Fraud in the United States : An FTC Survey
http://www.ftc.gov/reports/consumerfraud/040805confraudrpt.pdf
A snap-shot of fraud in the U.S. based on a survey of 2,500 randomly selected adults who were interviewed about their consumer experiences during the previous year. The survey targeted 10 specific types of consumer fraud. From the Federal Trade Commission. August 2004, 170pp.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Corporate Crime Acts Like a Thief in the Night
http://www.commondreams.org/views03/1104-04.htm
The FBI last week released its annual "Crime in the United States" report, a useful but grizzly compendium of all the murders and thefts and rapes across the country and their costs. The report is designed to empower law enforcement professionals and the public by helping them better understand and respond to criminal trends.
Conspicuously absent from this report, however, was an assessment of corporate crime. The report contains no statistics on the accounting and securities frauds that have rocked the economy in the last two years. It does not list details on the litany of food safety violations, product safety violations, workplace safety violations, environmental pollution and countless other crimes that kill, injure and sicken millions of Americans each year.
The reason is simple but troubling. Under federal law, the FBI must collect data on eight crime indexes: murder and manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault; burglary; larceny-theft; motor vehicle theft; and arson. It also is required to produce a report on hate crimes.
But because the FBI lacks a congressional mandate to collect data on corporate crime, the American public lacks good information on what has become a pressing national problem — a corporate crime wave. The dangerous consequence is that the absence of data ignores the problem of suite crime while stirring up fear about street crime.
Article by Lee Drutman, Los Angeles Times, November 4, 2003
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Den of Thieves
Book by Stewart, James Brewer available in the Gast Business Library (HG4910 .S683 1991) and many other libraries
The explosive #1 bestseller from the Pulitzer Prize-winning Front Page Editor of The Wall Street Journal that blows the lid off insider trading. With all the elements of a miniseries, Den of Thieves reveals how SEC agents and detectives caught the biggest crooks Wall Street has ever seen.

Ernst & Young Global Fraud Survey 2003 (8th)
Also known as Fraud : The Unmanaged Risk
http://www.your-call.com.au/information/documents/EY8thGlobalSurvey2003.pdf
85% of all fraud committed internally or by those on the payroll. Notification by employees next most effective detection tool to internal controls.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Ernst & Young Global Fraud Survey 2006 (9th)
Also known as Fraud Risk in Emerging Markets
http://www.ey.com/Global/assets.nsf/International/FIDS_-_9th_Global_Fraud_Survey_2006_print/$file/EY_Fraud_Survey_June2006print.pdf
The 2006 Ernst & Young global fraud survey found that 90 per cent of companies believed their controls were tough enough to prevent and detect fraud. But less than half — just over 40 per cent — had a formal or documented anti-fraud policy.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Ernst & Young Global Fraud Survey 2008 (10th)
Also known as Corruption or Compliance – Weighing the Costs
http://www.ey.com/Global/assets.nsf/International/FIDS_Corruption_or_compliance_weighing_the_costs/$file/Corruption_or_compliance_weighing_the_costs.pdf
(Last checked 10/08/09)

FBI Financial Crimes Report to the Public
http://www.fbi.gov/publications/financial/fcs_report052005/fcs_report052005.htm
Healthcare fraud is nothing new, but it is evolving. More cases involve medical professionals harming patients in furtherance of their schemes. Healthcare fraud schemes now involve unnecessary surgeries, weakened cancer drugs, and bogus lab tests. Also covers corporate fraud, mortgage fraud, identity theft, insurance fraud, telemarketing fraud, and asset forfeiture/money laundering.
(Last checked 09/15/05)

Fighting Corporate and Government Wrongdoing:
A Research Guide to International and U.S. Federal Laws on White-Collar Crime and Corruption
http://www.llrx.com/features/whitecollarcrime.htm
Kumar Percy of U TX has created this guide which focuses on major sources of information about white-collar crimes and anti-corruption efforts. It includes online and print sources. Source: LLRX.com, Aug. 15, 2002.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Financial Crimes Against the Elderly
http://www.popcenter.org/Problems/problem-financial_crimes.htm
This guide addresses the problem of financial crimes against the elderly. It begins by describing the problem and reviewing risk factors. It then identifies a series of questions to help you analyze your local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and describes the conditions under which they are most effective.
Financial crimes against the elderly fall under two general categories: fraud committed by strangers, and financial exploitation by relatives and caregivers. These categories sometimes overlap in terms of target selection and the means used to commit the crime. However, the differences in the offender-victim relationships suggest different methods for analyzing and responding to the problem. Courtesy of Kelly Dedel Johnson from the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Financial Institution Fraud and Failure Report, 2005
http://www.fbi.gov/publications/financial/2005fif/fif05.pdf
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Financial Institution Fraud and Failure Report, 2003
http://www.fbi.gov/publications/financial/2003fif/fif03.pdf
Courtesy of the FBI, Financial Institutions Fraud Unit, Financial Crimes Section.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Financial Institution Fraud and Failure Report, 2002
http://www.fbi.gov/publications/financial/2002fif/fif02.pdf
Courtesy of the FBI, Financial Institutions Fraud Unit, Financial Crimes Section.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Financial Institution Fraud and Failure Report, 2000 and 2001
http://www.fbi.gov/publications/financial/2000-01fif.pdf
Courtesy of the FBI, Financial Institutions Fraud Unit, Financial Crimes Section.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Global Economic Crime Survey, 2005
http://www.pwc.com/extweb/pwcpublications.nsf/docid/e5f30d2c54ef8928802570f30036cd44/$file/pwc_2005_globalcrimesurvey.pdf
Global Economic Crime Survey, 2003 also available.
The page also provides access to reports organized by region and country. Based on over 3600 interviews in 50 countries, the PricewaterhouseCoopers global economic crime survey 2005 (in association with Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering) is one of the most comprehensive assessments of the effect of economic crime on business ever undertaken.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Going, Going, Gone...
Law Enforcement Efforts to Combat Internet Auction Fraud
http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/reports/int-auction.htm
Describes the FTC efforts to combat fraud in Internet auction sales. The FTC and partner enforcement officials have been able to track complaints about Internet auction fraud, which have escalated from approximately 100 in 1997 to over 10,000 in 1999.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Hearing on Financial Instruments Fraud
http://www.senate.gov/~banking/97_09hrg/091697/witness/brown.htm
A hearing held by the U.S. Congress, Senate ,Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Subcommittee on Financial Services and Technology, September 16,1997.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Internet Fraud, see Cybercrime

KPMG Fraud Survey (for South Africa), 2002
http://www.kpmg.co.za/images/naledi/pdf%20documents/sa%20fraud%20survey%202002%20.pdf
(Last checked 10/08/09)

KPMG Fraud Survey, 2003
http://www.us.kpmg.com/RutUS_prod/Documents/9/FINALFraudSur.pdf
Spurred by new government regulations and investors' demands, more companies today are working to uncover fraud, finding it, and taking action against those who commit fraud, according to a new KPMG LLP survey of executives at 459 U.S. public companies and state and federal government agencies. The KPMG survey shows 75 percent of respondents reporting that they have uncovered fraud in their organizations in the last year, compared with 62 percent of executives responding to a similar survey in 1998.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

KPMG Fraud Survey (for Australia and New Zealand), 2004
http://www.kpmg.com.au/aci/docs/Fraud-Survey-2004.pdf
(Last checked 10/08/09)

KPMG Fraud Survey (for Malaysia) 2004
http://www.kpmg.com.my/kpmg/publications/fas/fsurvey_2004.pdf
(Last checked 10/08/09)

KPMG Fraud Survey (for Singapore) 2004
http://www.kpmg.com.sg/publications/forensics_FraudSurvey2004.pdf
(Last checked 10/08/09)

KPMG Fraud Survey (for Australia and New Zealand), 2006
http://www2.help.edu.my/helpuni/uploadFile/fraudmanagement/KPMG_Fraud_Survey_2006_Australia.pdf
http://www.kpmg.com.au/Portals/0/FraudSurvey%2006%20WP(web).pdf
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Managing the Business Risk of Fraud
http://www.aicpa.org/download/news/2008/Managing_the_Business_Risk_of_Fraud.pdf
New guidelines for fighting fraud have been released jointly by three leading professional organizations. “Managing the Business Risk of Fraud: A Practical Guide” is sponsored by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), and The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA). Principles for establishing effective fraud risk management, regardless of the type or size of an organization, are outlined in the guide.
… The new guidance provides a practical approach for companies committed to preserving stakeholder value. It can be used to assess or improve an organization’s fraud risk management program, or to develop an effective program where none exists.
Five key principles within the guidance address governance, risk assessment, fraud prevention and detection, investigation, and corrective action. Following the guidance will help ensure that there is suitable oversight of fraud risk management, that fraud exposures are identified and evaluated, that appropriate processes and procedures are in place to manage those exposures, and that fraud allegations are addressed in a timely manner. Source: American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Nigerian Advanced Fee Fraud
http://www.state.gov/www/regions/africa/naffpub.pdf
A lengthy explanation of the "Nigerian 419 scam," named after a section of Nigerian penal law. Also known as "AFF," this confidence scheme includes money transfers, black market arrangements, and extortion. This 1997 report from the U.S. State Department (as a 33-page PDF document, it may take some time to load) provides examples of materials used in the scam and explains how it works and the connections between AFF and kidnapping, drug trafficking, and murder.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Nigerian E-Mail Scam
http://www.michigan.gov/minewswire/0,1607,7-136-3452-47397--M_2002_8,00.html
The Michigan Office of Financial and Insurance Services (OFIS) recently received an email supposedly from Nigeria soliciting assistance for depositing money and offering payment for that assistance. We didn’t fall for it and neither should you.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Nigerian 4-1-9 Scam
http://www.quatloos.com/scams/nigerian.htm
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Online Extortion Plot Results in Release of Credit Card Data
http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/01/biztech/articles/10hack.html
Article by John Markoff appearing in the January 10, 2000 New York Times, page 1.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

Online Fraud Growing in Scale, Sophistication
http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/ecom/article.php/1552921
Fraud will cost online retailers about $500 million during this holiday season, according to a new study out by industry analyst giant Gartner, Inc. Fraud is growing not only in scale but in sophistication. The Gartner report points out that fraud has become more frequent, menacing and sophisticated. Despite increased efforts to allay the problem, 7% online shoppers reported being the victim of credit card fraud in the preceding 12 months, according to a Gartner survey of 1,000 adult online consumers. That represents a jump of two percentage points from 2001. Article by Sharon Gaudin, Datamation, December 5, 2002.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

PricewaterhouseCoopers Global Economic Crime Survey 2007
Also known as Economic crime: People, culture and controls
http://www.pwc.com/extweb/home.nsf/docid/29CAE5B1F1D40EE38525736A007123FD
Despite heightened efforts at regulation and companies' investments in controls, fraud remains a major threat to companies around the world. From simple theft to more complex schemes involving management and corruption, the threat continues regardless of a company's size, location or industry.
Over 43 percent of the companies interviewed reported suffering one or more significant economic crimes.
The average loss from fraud per company increased nearly 40 percent in two years from roughly US$1.7 million in 2005 to approximately US$2.4 million in 2007.
Over 80 percent of our respondents who suffered fraud also stated that this had caused damage—or significant damage—to their business.
No industry is immune from the threat posed by economic crime although different sectors are impacted by different types of fraud.
(Last checked 10/08/09)

PricewaterhouseCoopers Global Economic Crime Survey 2005
http://www.pwc.com/extweb/pwcpublications.nsf/docid/e5f30d2c54ef8928802570f30036cd44/$file/pwc_2005_globalcrimesurvey.pdf
PricewaterhouseCoopers' third biennial Economic crime survey is based on interviews with more than 3,600 senior executives in 34 countries, and reveals their experiences with fraud, its causes and losses, their responses and recovery actions and the effectiveness of fraud prevention measures.
Key findings:

(Last checked 10/08/09)

PricewaterhouseCoopers Global Economic Crime Survey 2003
http://www.acfe.com/documents/2003_PwC_CrimeReport.pdf

  • Economic Crime remains a significant threat: 37% of respondents report significant economic crimes during the previous two years.
  • The bigger you are, the harder you fall: companies with more employees are more likely to have suffered from economic crime.
  • No industry is safe: over 30% of respondents in each of the industries interviewed suffered fraud.
  • Asset misappropriation is the most widely reported crime. It is also the easiest crime to detect, with 60% of all victims citing this as one of the frauds that they had suffered.
  • Average loss per company: US $2,199,930
  • The impact on reputation, brand image, and staff morale can be more important than the direct financial loss.
  • One-third of respondents stressed the company's Board had ultimate responsibility for preventing or managing economic crime - but only just over a quarter had given their boards any risk management training.
  • Tangible risk management measures reap clear results: those that had suffered fraud took practical anti-fraud measures, from employee Screening to active awareness raising; those that had not, relied on passive measures such as a company code of ethics.
  • Almost three quarters of victims of crime recovered less than 20% of their losses; only half of respondents had insurance against economic crime, but they recovered more of their losses.
  • The biggest concerns for the future are asset misappropriation - the most visible of economic crimes - and cybercrime.

  • (Last checked 10/08/09)

    The Problem of Check and Card Fraud
    http://www.popcenter.org/Problems/problem-check-card-fraud.htm
    This guide describes the problem of check and card fraud, and reviews factors that increase the risks of it. It then identifies a series of questions to help you analyze your local problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem, and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice. Courtesy of Graeme R. Newman from the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing.
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Public Corruption in the United States
    http://www.corporatecrimereporter.com/corruptreport.pdf
    Includes a table ranking the 50 states according to their corruption rate. Courtesy of the Corporate Crime Reporter.
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Report to the Nation: Occupation Fraud and Abuse
    http://www.acfe.com/fraud/report.asp
    Occupational fraud and abuse is a widespread problem that affects every entity, regardless of size, location or industry. The ACFE has made it a goal to better educate the public and anti-fraud professionals about this threat.
    In 1996, the Association of Certfied Fraud Examiners (ACFE) published its first Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse, also known as The Wells Report. It was the largest privately-funded study on the subject of occupational fraud and abuse in the U.S. Since the ACFE have also released a 2002, 2004, and 2006 reports. All three have been cataloged for Magic, our online catalog.
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Rip-off Alert: Beat the Cheats
    http://www.aarpmagazine.org/money/Articles/a2004-06-28-mag-ripoff.html
    Whether it's car salesmen or doctors, identity thieves or home repairmen, airlines or Internet auctioneers, somewhere along the line someone's going to try to take you to the cleaners. How do you stop them? Protect yourself—and your wallet—by heeding the following inside tips from some of America's top consumer guardians. Sid Kirchheimer, AARP : the Magazine, July & August 2004.
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Special Report on "Phishing"
    http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/fraud/docs/phishing.pdf
    During 2003 and 2004, law enforcement authorities, businesses, and internet users have seen a significant increase in the use of "phishing". "Phishing" is a general term for criminals' creation and use of e-mails and websites -- designed to look like e-mails and websites of well-known legitimate businesses, financial institutions, and government agencies -- in order to deceive internet users into disclosing their bank and financial account information or other personal data such as usernames and passwords. The "phishers" then take that information and use it for criminal purposes, such as identity theft and fraud.
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Special Report on "Phishing"
    Also called Report on Phishing : A Report to the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada and the Attorney General of the United States Binational Working Group on Cross-Border Mass Marketing Fraud, October 2006
    http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/report_on_phishing.pdf
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Swindlers, Hucksters, and Snake Oil Salesmen
    Hype and Hope Marketing Anti-Aging Products to Seniors
    http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=107_senate_hearings&docid=f:76011.pdf
    Senate hearing 107-190, Sept. 10. 2001. 320pp. Also available via the MSU Library Online Catalog.
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Telemarketing Fraud Investigation, Prosecution and Prevention Manual:
    The Experience of Five Demonstration Sites
    http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/telemarketing_fraud_web.pdf
    Congress has estimated that telemarketing fraud is a $40 billion a year “industry.” Even worse, fraudulent telemarketers often prey upon those least able to recover, older Americans. Sean P. Morgan. American Prosecutors Research Institute. July 2003, 72pp. Copyright #2026
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Telemarketing Fraud Educators Toolbox Available
    http://www.fraud.org/toolbox/members.htm
    BJA is pleased to announce the availability of a new resource on telemarketing fraud. The Telemarketing Fraud Educators Toolbox provides tips, presentations, scripts for radio PSAs and speeches, and much more. Materials are available in both English and Spanish. (BJA)
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Top 100 Corporate Criminals of the 1990s
    http://www.corporatecrimereporter.com/top100.html
    Report by Russell Mokhiber, Corporate Crime Reporter.
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    Twenty Things You Should Know About Corporate Crime
    http://www.corporatecrimereporter.com/twenty061207.htm
    Source : 21 Corporate Crime Reporter 25, June 12, 2007
    (Last checked 10/08/09)

    For more information about swinders and swindling, See the MSU Libraries Online Catalog.

     

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