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Criminal Justice Resources :

Hate Crime and Cult, Hate, Fringe, or Militia Groups


A hate crime (bias crime), loosely defined, is a crime committed because of the perpetrator's prejudices. This is a controversial political issue within the US. The US Congress (HR 4797 - 1992) defined a hate crime as: "[a crime in which] the defendant's conduct was motivated by hatred, bias, or prejudice, based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation or gender identity of another individual or group of individuals." In 1994, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act added disabilities to the above list. Visit the Hate Crime entry from the Wikipedia for more information.


Definitions:
  • Ethnic intimidation: A felony in Michigan punishable by up to two years in prison. The perpetrator must be found to have acted with a specific intent to harm, intimidate or harass someone based on his or her race, color, religion, gender or national origin.
  • Federal hate crime: A felony punishable by up to 10 years in prison. The Hate Crimes Act bans a crime against a person or property that is motivated by bias toward race, religion, ethnicity/national origin, disability, or sexual orientation.
    Source: Wayne County Prosecutor's Office and U.S. Attorney's Office.


Web Sites | Articles and Publications


Web Sites

ADL Online
http://www.adl.org/
The web page of the Anti-Defamation League. Since part of ADL's mission if fighting anti-Semitism, they often collect information about various hate or fringe groups.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Civilrights.org Hate Crime Page
http://www.civilrights.org/issues/hate/
Provides links to news items and background resources.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

The Dark Side of the Net
http://web.archive.org/web/20011006174850
/http://www.hillel.montreal.qc.ca/hatred_frame.html

A collection of links to various racist and revisionist areas of the Internet. Compiled by B'nai Brith Hillel Society of Montreal. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Hate and Violence: No Simple Answers
http://web.archive.org/web/20011021035328/
http://www.discovery.com/stories/history/hateviolence/onlinereporting2.html

An online report from the Discovery Channel. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archives.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Hate Crime
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/crime/hate-crime/welcome.htm
Race is the most common motivation behind hate crime offending, followed by religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and victim disability. State and local responses to hate crime include legislation aimed at improving law enforcement responses to these crimes; investigation, prosecution, and prevention of hate crimes; and implementation of victim support programs as well as diversity and tolerance education programs. NIJ's topic page on Hate Crime reports on recent research findings and what areas still remain to be explored.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Hate Crimes: PAIS Hot Topic (Fall 1999)
http://web.archive.org/web/20040219030322/
http://www.pais.org/hottopics/1999/fall/index.stm

Hate crimes--violent acts committed against people because of their race, gender, ethnicity, religious choices, or sexual orientation--are age-old and are prominently visible in such volatile parts of the world as the Balkan states, the Middle East, and Northern Ireland. Diplomacy, peace talks and treaties, military intervention, and other measures have been used to try to stop attacks in these places. And in the United States, FBI statistics and media coverage of recent hate-related incidents reveal the need for further legislation, such as the Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2001 (also known as the Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act of 2001) and further education, volunteer action, and whatever else it takes to help people see "character, not color," and otherwise truly unite.
Explore this site to discover citations from the Public Affairs Information Service database as well as links to relevant web pages. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

The Hate Directory : Hate Groups On the Internet
2008: http://www.hatedirectory.com/
The Hate Directory is maintained and presented as an aid in identifying and tracking the proliferation of hate oriented use of the Internet and other new electronic media. Included are Internet sites of individuals and groups that, in the opinion of the author, advocate violence against, separation from, defamation of, deception about, or hostility toward others based upon race, religion, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation. Compiled by Raymond A. Franklin.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Intelligence Report
hhttps://www.splcenter.org/intelligence-report
The Center's quarterly Intelligence Report offers in-depth analysis of political extremism and bias crimes in the United States. The Intelligence Report profiles Far Right leaders, monitors domestic terrorism and reports on the activities of extremist groups. Its annual listing of hate groups and Patriot groups is the most comprehensive in the United States. Each issue contains summaries of bias incidents from throughout the country. Web page provides full access from fall 1997 to date, and selected articles from earlier 1997 issues. Selected earlier issues are available in the MSU Main Library Special Collections.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Not In Our Town
http://www.pbs.org/niot
The companion web site to the outreach campaign and award winning public television documentary series, Not In Our Town, about ordinary citizens standing up to hate. NIOT.org is home to films and tools to use in your community or school.

Last checked 10/31/17)

The Rhetoric of Extremism : A Listing of Extreme and Anti-Extremism Groups on the Web
http://web.archive.org/web/20031209124147/http://www.stetson.edu/~mmcfarla/extreme.html
Compiled and maintained by Michael McFarland, Stetson University. December 2003.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Tolerance.org
Formerly called Hatewatch
http://tolerance.org
A Web project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Tolerance.org encourages people from all walks of life to "fight hate and promote tolerance." Through our public service announcements and this Web site, we hope to awaken you to the problem of hate and intolerance, equip you with the best tolerance ideas and prompt you to act in your homes, schools, businesses and communities. Still includes sections on hate in the news, tracking hate organizations, and learning the truth about hate groups and hate music.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Watchman Fellowship's Index of Cults and Religions
http://www.watchman.org/indxmenu.htm
The Watchman Expositor Index contains brief definitions, descriptions or cross references on over 1,100 religious organizations and beliefs. This year's index is expanded to include world religions (including Christianity) and related doctrines.
(Last checked 10/31/17)


Articles or Publications

Books on Hate Crimes in the MSU Libraries
http://magic.lib.msu.edu/search/dHate+crimes+--+United+States./dhate+crimes+united+states/-5,-1,0,B/browse
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Connecting the Past to the Future: Hate Crime in America
http://ccj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/short/15/1/22
This article argues that hate crimes are not a modern-day phenomenon, but extend throughout the history of the United States. Using a definition based on intrinsic justice rather than codified law, selected events in the 17th through early 19th centuries are examined. Comparative analysis indicated similarities and differences between historical and modern events. The distillation of conditions surrounding hate crime dynamics both past and present, along with the examination of current trends suggest the following summary factors: (a) racism is a primary predictor of hate crime through time; (b) the efficiency and degree of harm potential in hate crime is a function of opportunity and technology; (c) hate crimes will occur more frequently and be more difficult to prevent; (d) notwithstanding the repugnant nature of hate crime, many Americans are becoming more sympathetic to the hate crime perpetrator's cause; and (e) hate crime, on some levels, is becoming indistinguishable from domestic terrorism. Carolyn Petrosino. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 15, No. 1, 22-47 (1999).
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Crimes of Hate : Selected Readings (Book)
Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld, Diana R. Grant, eds. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, c2004. 391pp. Main Library Stacks HV6773.52 .C75 2004
As an emerging domain of law, the field of hate crimes is changing rapidly. Staying current with the wide-ranging social and legal aspects of hate crimes is essential to understanding policy implications and the growing societal debate.
Crimes of Hate: Selected Readings is the first comprehensive reader to offer an up-to-date, multidisciplinary examination of hate crimes. Editors Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld and Diana R. Grant include articles from a variety of disciplines, including criminal justice, criminology, sociology, psychology, and political science. With introductions, discussion questions, and resource lists, this unique anthology combines the most current research on hate crimes with accessible articles from scholarly and legal journals in a single, easily understood format.
See also Books on Hate Crime in the MSU Libraries.

Hate Crimes : Causes, Controls, and Controversies (Book)
Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications, Inc., 2004. 293pp. Main Library Stacks HV6773.52 .G47 2004
Who perpetrates hate crimes and why? How do hate groups recruit members? Why does so much controversy surround hate crime legislation? While hate crimes are becoming a popular area of academic study, many important questions about hate crimes remain unanswered.
Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies addresses the many facets of hate crimes, providing a comprehensive examination of this complex problem. Author Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld explores the causes of prejudice, the history and operation of hate crime legislation, the activities of organized extremist groups, the international manifestations and solutions to hate crimes, and the consequences of hate crimes upon victims and communities. Considering a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, this multidisciplinary text includes the latest legal developments and cutting-edge social research.
See also Books on Hate Crime in the MSU Libraries.

Hate Crime in America: The Debate Continues
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/journals/257/hate-crime.html
NCJ 218259. Article by Michael Shively Ph.D., Carrie F. Mulford Ph.D. appearing in National Institute of Justice Journal, 257, June 2007, 8 to 13..
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Hatred in the Hallways:
Violence and Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students in the United States
http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/uslgbt/toc.htm
In this report, Human Rights Watch documents attacks on the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth who are subjected to abuse on a daily basis by their peers and in some cases by teachers and school administrators. These violations are compounded by the failure of federal, state, and local governments to enact laws providing students with express protection from discrimination and violence based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, effectively allowing school officials to ignore violations of these students' rights.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Local Prosecutor's Guide for Responding to Hate Crimes
http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/hate_crimes.pdf
The American Prosecutors Research Institute (APRI), the research affiliate of the National District Attorneys Association (NDAA), supported by funding from the Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, has written "A Local Prosecutor's Guide for Responding to Hate Crimes." APRI established and worked with an 18-member advisory group which includes 10 local prosecutors, as well as representatives from the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the Anti-Defamation League, the Center on Hate and Extremism, the National Center for Victims of Crime, Facing History and Ourselves, a county sheriff's office, the FBI, and the DOJ Community Relations Service. 2003? 63pp.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Not in Our Town
https://www.niot.org/cops/wakinginoakcreek
Not In Our Town is a movement to stop hate, address bullying, and build safe, inclusive communities for all. Not In Our Town films, new media, and organizing tools help local leaders build vibrant, diverse cities and towns, where everyone can participate. NIOT.org is home to films and tools to use in your community or school.

(Last checked 10/31/17)

Project Meggido
http://www.cesnur.org/testi/FBI_004.htm
The attached analysis, entitled PROJECT MEGIDDO, is an FBI strategic assessment of the potential for domestic terrorism in the United States undertaken in anticipation of or response to the arrival of the new millennium. Center for the Study of New Religions.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Skinhead Street Gangs
http://web.archive.org/web/20030626073957/
http://www.aracnet.com/~lwc123/skinhead.htm

Reveals a subculture of young racist skinheads who harass, intimidate, assault, and kill because of the victim's skin color, sexual preference, and religion. Web advertisement for a book available in the MSU Library Main Stacks under the call number HV6439 .U7 O73 1994. Web site still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

Spaces of Hate : Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A. (Book)
Colin Flint, ed. New York : Routledge, 2004. 265pp. Main Library Stacks E184.A1 S695 2004
While much has been written about hate groups and extreme right political movements, this book will be the first that addresses the crucial role that place and context play in generating and shaping them. Ranging across geographical scales the essays start with the home, and then move from the local to the regional, to the national to-finally-the global. In this collection, much of the focus is on the U.S., as the contributors consider a variety of hate activity and hate groups across the country, including; rural white supremacist and neo-Nazi movements; anti-black sentiment directed towards cities; anti-gay activity in cities and rural areas and the resurgent Southern nationalist movement. Closing with pieces from those who combat hate activity, the intention of Spaces of Hate is to recognize specific geographic settings likely to foster hate activity.
See also Books on Hate Crime in the MSU Libraries.

Terrorism and Organized Hate Crime : Intelligence Gathering, Analysis, and Investigation
Michael R. Ronczkowski. Boca Raton : CRC Press, c2007. 2nd edition, 363pp. On order 04/12/07
In response to the current terrorist threat, law enforcement agencies at every level have expanded technological and intelligence-gathering initiatives in order to support new tactical, investigative and deployment strategies. The demand for homeland security requires that agencies hire professional and specially-trained criminal and intelligence analysts to find and pre-empt any potential threat.
Agencies must now determine how to train these analysts and properly identify and respond to critical intelligence. Terrorism and Organized Hate Crime: Intelligence Gathering, Analysis, and Investigations provides a framework for exploring the issues that all new or existing analysts and investigators must face, including what information to gather, how to analyze it, and the effectiveness of crime analysts investigating terrorism.
Training in proactive analytical-based investigation has been around for less than thirty years. Events now mandate that unavoidable importance of understanding "terrorism analysis." This expert overview provides the crucial foundation of criminal intelligence gathering and analysis and defines the nature of terrorism and its practitioners, subjects of vital importance if local agencies are to play an effective role in the battle against terror.

Understanding and Preventing Hate Crimes
http://www.apa.org/monitor/nov01/hatecrimes.html
Psychologists' research offers new insights on the emotions that lead to hate crimes and how to prevent them. Article by Tori DeAngelis, Monitor on Psychology, November 10, 2001.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

U.S. National Militias Directory
http://www.constitution.org/mil/mil_us.htm
The following are links to unofficial Web pages for each state, each of which will include links to locally-maintained constitutional militia Web sites as these become known. These pages are for the convenience of state and local militias until they can develop their own, and to provide a uniform reference system for the militia movement as a whole. Note that these pages are for constitutional militias only, those dedicated to the preservation, protection, and defense of the Constitutions for the United States and of their state, open to all citizens so dedicated, regardless of race, color, gender, or views on nonconstitutional issues. While the Constitution Society reserves the right to make a final determination of what is to be included on these pages, local militia units are encouraged to think of these pages as theirs, and we will, within reason, try to comply with their preferences on design and material to be included.
(Last checked 10/31/17)

 

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Last revised 10/31/17

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