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Criminal Justice Resources :

Hate Crime and Cult, Hate, Fringe, or Militia Groups


A hate crime (bias crime), loosely defined, is a crime committed because of the perpetrator's prejudices. This is a controversial political issue within the US. The US Congress (HR 4797 - 1992) defined a hate crime as: "[a crime in which] the defendant's conduct was motivated by hatred, bias, or prejudice, based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation or gender identity of another individual or group of individuals." In 1994, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act added disabilities to the above list. Visit the Hate Crime entry from the Wikipedia for more information.


Definitions:
  • Ethnic intimidation: A felony in Michigan punishable by up to two years in prison. The perpetrator must be found to have acted with a specific intent to harm, intimidate or harass someone based on his or her race, color, religion, gender or national origin.
  • Federal hate crime: A felony punishable by up to 10 years in prison. The Hate Crimes Act bans a crime against a person or property that is motivated by bias toward race, religion, ethnicity/national origin, disability, or sexual orientation.
    Source: Wayne County Prosecutor's Office and U.S. Attorney's Office.


Web Sites | Articles and Publications


Web Sites

ADL Online
http://www.adl.org/
The web page of the Anti-Defamation League. Since part of ADL's mission if fighting anti-Semitism, they often collect information about various hate or fringe groups.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Civilrights.org Hate Crime Page
http://www.civilrights.org/issues/hate/
Provides links to news items and background resources.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

The Dark Side of the Net
http://web.archive.org/web/20011006174850
/http://www.hillel.montreal.qc.ca/hatred_frame.html

A collection of links to various racist and revisionist areas of the Internet. Compiled by B'nai Brith Hillel Society of Montreal. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Hate and Violence: No Simple Answers
http://web.archive.org/web/20011021035328/
http://www.discovery.com/stories/history/hateviolence/onlinereporting2.html

An online report from the Discovery Channel. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archives.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Hate Crime
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/crime/hate-crime/welcome.htm
Race is the most common motivation behind hate crime offending, followed by religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and victim disability. State and local responses to hate crime include legislation aimed at improving law enforcement responses to these crimes; investigation, prosecution, and prevention of hate crimes; and implementation of victim support programs as well as diversity and tolerance education programs. NIJ’s topic page on Hate Crime reports on recent research findings and what areas still remain to be explored.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Hate Crime : In the Spotlight (NCJRS)
http://www.ncjrs.gov/spotlight/hate_crimes/summary.html
This comprehensive online resource offers a compilation of the latest available information and statistics on hate and bias crime. Use this guide to find current information on recent hate crime initiatives, facts and figures on hate crime, current legislation on hate crime, available online and print topical publications, current programs in place to combat hate crime, training and technical assistance, grants and funding opportunities, and Web sites that offer additional information on hate crime.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Hate Crimes: PAIS Hot Topic (Fall 1999)
http://web.archive.org/web/20040219030322/
http://www.pais.org/hottopics/1999/fall/index.stm

Hate crimes--violent acts committed against people because of their race, gender, ethnicity, religious choices, or sexual orientation--are age-old and are prominently visible in such volatile parts of the world as the Balkan states, the Middle East, and Northern Ireland. Diplomacy, peace talks and treaties, military intervention, and other measures have been used to try to stop attacks in these places. And in the United States, FBI statistics and media coverage of recent hate-related incidents reveal the need for further legislation, such as the Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2001 (also known as the Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act of 2001) and further education, volunteer action, and whatever else it takes to help people see "character, not color," and otherwise truly unite.
Explore this site to discover citations from the Public Affairs Information Service database as well as links to relevant web pages. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

The Hate Directory : Hate Groups On the Internet
2008: http://www.hatedirectory.com/
The Hate Directory is maintained and presented as an aid in identifying and tracking the proliferation of hate oriented use of the Internet and other new electronic media. Included are Internet sites of individuals and groups that, in the opinion of the author, advocate violence against, separation from, defamation of, deception about, or hostility toward others based upon race, religion, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation. Compiled by Raymond A. Franklin.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Intelligence Report
http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/intrep.jsp
The Center's quarterly Intelligence Report offers in-depth analysis of political extremism and bias crimes in the United States. The Intelligence Report profiles Far Right leaders, monitors domestic terrorism and reports on the activities of extremist groups. Its annual listing of hate groups and Patriot groups is the most comprehensive in the United States. Each issue contains summaries of bias incidents from throughout the country. Web page provides full access from fall 1997 to date, and selected articles from earlier 1997 issues. Selected earlier issues are available in the MSU Main Library Special Collections.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Michiganmilitia.com
http://www.michiganmilitia.com/index.htm
Because a well-armed citizenry is the best Homeland Security, and can better deter crime, invasion, terrorism, or tyranny...The intention of this MichiganMilitia.com website is to inform, promote and facilitate the development and training of the militia. Everyone is welcome, regardless of race, creed, color, tint, or hue; regardless of your religion (or lack thereof); regardless of anything else: if you are an American, who is capable of bearing arms, or wishes to support someone doing so, then you ARE the militia...
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Not In Our Town
http://www.pbs.org/niot
The companion web site to the outreach campaign and award winning public television documentary series, Not In Our Town, about ordinary citizens standing up to hate.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

The Rhetoric of Extremism : A Listing of Extreme and Anti-Extremism Groups on the Web
http://web.archive.org/web/20031209124147/http://www.stetson.edu/~mmcfarla/extreme.html
Compiled and maintained by Michael McFarland, Stetson University. December 2003.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Project
http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intpro.jsp
The Intelligence Project monitors hate groups and extremist activities throughout the U.S. and publishes the Center's award-winning Intelligence Report. It also offers training to help law enforcement officials and human rights groups combat organized racism, including an online hate crime training course for law enforcement professionals.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Tolerance.org
Formerly called Hatewatch
http://tolerance.org
A Web project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Tolerance.org encourages people from all walks of life to "fight hate and promote tolerance." Through our public service announcements and this Web site, we hope to awaken you to the problem of hate and intolerance, equip you with the best tolerance ideas and prompt you to act in your homes, schools, businesses and communities. Still includes sections on hate in the news, tracking hate organizations, and learning the truth about hate groups and hate music.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Watchman Fellowship's Index of Cults and Religions
http://www.watchman.org/indxmenu.htm
The Watchman Expositor Index contains brief definitions, descriptions or cross references on over 1,100 religious organizations and beliefs. This year's index is expanded to include world religions (including Christianity) and related doctrines.
(Last checked 02/21/13)


Articles or Publications

Addressing Hate Crimes:
Six Initiatives That Are Enchancing the Efforts of Criminal Justice Practitioners
http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/179559.pdf
The six initiatives to assist criminal justice practitioners in responding to hate crimes are: (1) The International Association of Chiefs of Police Summit: Hate Crime in America, a 2-day summit for law enforcement, civil rights and other leaders to develop recommendations for addressing hate crimes; (2) Department of Justice’s National Hate Crime Training Initiative, to develop multilevel hate crime training curricula for local law enforcement agencies; (3) Bureau of Justice Assistance’s Roll Call Video: Responding to Hate Crimes, which covers the initial response to and investigation of possible hate crimes; (4) The International Association of Chiefs of Police’s Responding to Hate Crimes: A Police Officer’s Guide to Investigation and Prevention of hate incidents and hate crimes, and how best to assist victims; (5) The American Prosecutors Research Institute’s Resource Guide, Prosecutors Respond to Hate Crimes Project; and (6) The Maine Department of the Attorney General’s Designated Civil Rights Officers Project, to develop a coordinated statewide system for hate crime investigation and prosecution. February 2000. Cataloged.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Bigotry Behind Bars: Racist Groups in U.S. Prisons
http://www.adl.org/special_reports/racist_groups_in_prisons/prisons_intro.asp
Driven by a belief in their superiority, white supremacist prison gangs contribute to increased racial tensions and violence in American penitentiaries. Not only do their activities undermine prison security, but their extreme rhetoric and animosity toward other races often stay with gang members long after their release. Prison officials estimate that up to 10 percent of the nation's prison population is affiliated with gangs. Anti-Defamation League, 2001.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Books on Hate Crimes in the MSU Libraries
http://magic.lib.msu.edu/search/dHate+crimes+--+United+States./dhate+crimes+united+states/-5,-1,0,B/browse
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Cause for Concern: Hate Crimes in America
http://www.civilrights.org/publications/reports/cause_for_concern/
That simple but powerful idea is what makes our nation different from others where people persecute each other because of how they look, how the speak, or how they worship God. In our own time, in troubled places such as the former Yugoslavia, the Middle East, Northern Ireland, Rwanda, and Burundi, we are witnessing once again the age-old tragedy of people committing horrific acts of violence against each other because they refuse to look beyond their differences to respect each other's inherent human dignity.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Cause for Concern: Hate Crimes In America, 2004 Update
http://www.civilrights.org/publications/reports/cause_for_concern_2004/
Violence directed against individuals on the basis of their race, religion, national origin, gender, or sexual orientation is disturbingly prevalent — and poses significant threats to the full participation of all Americans in a democratic society. Bias-motivated crimes are designed to intimidate the victim and members of the victim's community, leaving them feeling isolated, vulnerable, and unprotected by the law. By making victims of hate violence and their communities fearful, angry, and suspicious of other groups — and of the power structure that is supposed to protect them — these incidents can damage the fabric of our society and fragment communities. Courtesy of CivilRights.org
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Connecting the Past to the Future: Hate Crime in America
http://ccj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/short/15/1/22
This article argues that hate crimes are not a modern-day phenomenon, but extend throughout the history of the United States. Using a definition based on intrinsic justice rather than codified law, selected events in the 17th through early 19th centuries are examined. Comparative analysis indicated similarities and differences between historical and modern events. The distillation of conditions surrounding hate crime dynamics both past and present, along with the examination of current trends suggest the following summary factors: (a) racism is a primary predictor of hate crime through time; (b) the efficiency and degree of harm potential in hate crime is a function of opportunity and technology; (c) hate crimes will occur more frequently and be more difficult to prevent; (d) notwithstanding the repugnant nature of hate crime, many Americans are becoming more sympathetic to the hate crime perpetrator's cause; and (e) hate crime, on some levels, is becoming indistinguishable from domestic terrorism. Carolyn Petrosino. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 15, No. 1, 22-47 (1999).
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Crimes of Hate : Selected Readings (Book)
Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld, Diana R. Grant, eds. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, c2004. 391pp. Main Library Stacks HV6773.52 .C75 2004
As an emerging domain of law, the field of hate crimes is changing rapidly. Staying current with the wide-ranging social and legal aspects of hate crimes is essential to understanding policy implications and the growing societal debate.
Crimes of Hate: Selected Readings is the first comprehensive reader to offer an up-to-date, multidisciplinary examination of hate crimes. Editors Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld and Diana R. Grant include articles from a variety of disciplines, including criminal justice, criminology, sociology, psychology, and political science. With introductions, discussion questions, and resource lists, this unique anthology combines the most current research on hate crimes with accessible articles from scholarly and legal journals in a single, easily understood format.
See also Books on Hate Crime in the MSU Libraries.

Discounting Hate
http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=157
One decade after the FBI began collecting state hate crime statistics and publishing them under the federal Hate Crime Statistics Act, the national effort to document hathe-motivated crime is in shambles. A survey of 50 states by the Intelligence Report finds that the system is so gravely flawed that it may underestimate hate crimes by more than 80 percent. Southern Poverty Law Center, Intelligence Report, Winter 2001, Issue #104.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Doomsday Religious Movements
http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/pblctns/prspctvs/200003-eng.asp
Often overlooked in the discussion of emerging security intelligence issues is the challenge of contending with religious movements whose defining characteristic is an adherence to non-traditional spiritual belief systems. While only a small fraction of these groups could be considered Doomsday Religious Movements espousing hostile beliefs and having the potential to be violent, the threat they represent is evinced by recent events involving groups such as the American Branch Davidians, as well as Canada’s Order of the Solar Temple. Japan’s infamous Aum Shinrykio is a textbook example, where the coupling of apocalyptic beliefs and a charismatic leader fixated on enemies culminated in a nerve-gas attack intended to cause mass casualties in the hope of precipitating a world war and completing its apocalyptic prophecy. By examining the many characteristics of these movements, this paper intends to discuss which types of groups could be prone to violence and which factors indicate a group’s move to actualize this violence. The conclusions presented here are solely the result of a review of unclassified information available in the public domain. Canadian Security Intelligence Service, Dec. 18, 1999.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Hate Crime Statistics 1995-2011
http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm
Hate-crimes statistics collected by the FBI are underreported. Most hate crimes are never brought to the attention of police because of several reasons: (1) the victim's fear of reprisals, either direct or indirect. (2)the victim's fear of being "outed", with other consequent threats to employment, housing, educational opportunities, etc. (3) the victim's own shame and feelings of responsibility for the incident, or desire to protect offenders known to them (such as family members). (4) the victim's fear that s/he will be pressured to report the incident to police. Therefore, statistics do not reflect the true extent of anti-gay violence. In fact, federal reporting of hate crimes to the FBI by state and local jurisdictions is voluntary, resulting in no participation by many jurisdictions each year. Annotation provided by the Center for Lesbian and Gay Civil Rights.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Hate Crimes : Causes, Controls, and Controversies (Book)
Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications, Inc., 2004. 293pp. Main Library Stacks HV6773.52 .G47 2004
Who perpetrates hate crimes and why? How do hate groups recruit members? Why does so much controversy surround hate crime legislation? While hate crimes are becoming a popular area of academic study, many important questions about hate crimes remain unanswered.
Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies addresses the many facets of hate crimes, providing a comprehensive examination of this complex problem. Author Phyllis B. Gerstenfeld explores the causes of prejudice, the history and operation of hate crime legislation, the activities of organized extremist groups, the international manifestations and solutions to hate crimes, and the consequences of hate crimes upon victims and communities. Considering a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, this multidisciplinary text includes the latest legal developments and cutting-edge social research.
See also Books on Hate Crime in the MSU Libraries.

Hate Crime in America: The Debate Continues
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/journals/257/hate-crime.html
NCJ 218259. Article by Michael Shively Ph.D., Carrie F. Mulford Ph.D. appearing in National Institute of Justice Journal, 257, June 2007, 8 to 13..
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Hatred in the Hallways:
Violence and Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students in the United States
http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/uslgbt/toc.htm
In this report, Human Rights Watch documents attacks on the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth who are subjected to abuse on a daily basis by their peers and in some cases by teachers and school administrators. These violations are compounded by the failure of federal, state, and local governments to enact laws providing students with express protection from discrimination and violence based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, effectively allowing school officials to ignore violations of these students' rights.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Healing the Hate: A National Bias Crime Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools
http://www.edc.org/HHD/hatecrime/id3.htm
Designed for use in middle schools and youth organizations, this curriculum deals with the extent of hate crime in the United States and presents strategies for reducing hate crimes among our youth. The flexible 10-unit curriculum is based on the principles that violence and prejudice are learned and therefore preventable, and that students can develop critical-thinking skills to respond to and prevent hate crime. It includes interactive classroom exercises to provoke debate about issues and ideas, illustrate the profound impact of hate crime, and help students develop skills to recognize and counteract prejudice through involvement at the school and community levels. Available as pdf document.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

International Association of Police Chiefs
Responding to Hate Crimes:
A Police Officer's Guide to Investigation and Prevention
http://www.theiacp.org/PublicationsGuides/LawEnforcementIssues/Hatecrimes/RespondingtoHateCrimesPoliceOfficersGuide/tabid/221/Default.aspx
This guide explains the differences between hate incidents and hate crimes and how to respond to each. Hate incidents involve behaviors motivated by bias against a victim's race, religion, ethnic/national origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation that are not considered illegal, such as hostile or hateful speech. These behaviors become hate crimes when violence or physical injury is committed against persons or property, or when victims have a reasonable fear of violence occurring. This guide lists steps officers should take at the scene, factors that indicate a hate crime may have been committed, and ways for police to offer effective support to hate crime victims and the community throughout the investigation and prosecution processes. The guide also includes a convenient tear-out pocket guide summarizing these points and listing additional resources.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Local Prosecutor's Guide for Responding to Hate Crimes
http://www.ndaa.org/pdf/hate_crimes.pdf
The American Prosecutors Research Institute (APRI), the research affiliate of the National District Attorneys Association (NDAA), supported by funding from the Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, has written "A Local Prosecutor's Guide for Responding to Hate Crimes." APRI established and worked with an 18-member advisory group which includes 10 local prosecutors, as well as representatives from the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the Anti-Defamation League, the Center on Hate and Extremism, the National Center for Victims of Crime, Facing History and Ourselves, a county sheriff's office, the FBI, and the DOJ Community Relations Service. 2003? 63pp.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Project Meggido
http://www.cesnur.org/testi/FBI_004.htm
The attached analysis, entitled PROJECT MEGIDDO, is an FBI strategic assessment of the potential for domestic terrorism in the United States undertaken in anticipation of or response to the arrival of the new millennium. Center for the Study of New Religions.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Rebranding Hate in the Age of Obama
http://www.newsweek.com/id/195085
With an African-American president and the economy in bad shape, extremist groups are trying to enter the mainstream—and they're having some success. Eve Conant, Newsweek, April 25, 2009
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Rebranding Hate : Photographs from Newsweek
http://www.newsweek.com/id/194960
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Responding to Hate Crime: A Multidisciplinary Curriculum for Law Enforcement and Victim Assistance Professionals
http://www.edc.org/HHD/hatecrime/id3.htm
This curriculum is an updated and condensed version of the National Bias Crimes Training Manual. Multidisciplinary in nature, it provides instructors with all the materials needed to teach a course on responding to hate crime, including suggested activities, recommended videos, reproducible handouts and transparencies, and detailed background notes for trainers. It is designed to enhance the services that police and victim-assistance professionals provide to victims of hate crimes by providing information on the nature of hate crimes, hate crime indicators, appropriate actions to investigate and respond to such crimes, and effective ways of assisting victims. Available as pdf document.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Rise and Decline of the Patriots
http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=195
With the planned execution of Timothy McVeigh, a movement that roiled the 1990s comes symbolically to a close.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Skinhead Street Gangs
http://web.archive.org/web/20030626073957/
http://www.aracnet.com/~lwc123/skinhead.htm

Reveals a subculture of young racist skinheads who harass, intimidate, assault, and kill because of the victim's skin color, sexual preference, and religion. Web advertisement for a book available in the MSU Library Main Stacks under the call number HV6439 .U7 O73 1994. Web site still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Spaces of Hate : Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A. (Book)
Colin Flint, ed. New York : Routledge, 2004. 265pp. Main Library Stacks E184.A1 S695 2004
While much has been written about hate groups and extreme right political movements, this book will be the first that addresses the crucial role that place and context play in generating and shaping them. Ranging across geographical scales the essays start with the home, and then move from the local to the regional, to the national to-finally-the global. In this collection, much of the focus is on the U.S., as the contributors consider a variety of hate activity and hate groups across the country, including; rural white supremacist and neo-Nazi movements; anti-black sentiment directed towards cities; anti-gay activity in cities and rural areas and the resurgent Southern nationalist movement. Closing with pieces from those who combat hate activity, the intention of Spaces of Hate is to recognize specific geographic settings likely to foster hate activity.
See also Books on Hate Crime in the MSU Libraries.

Study of Literature and Legislation on Hate Crime in America, Final Report
https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/210300.pdf
Michael Shively Ph.D. Prepared by Abt Associates, Inc. for the National Institute of Justice. March 31, 2005. 159pp.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

Terrorism and Organized Hate Crime : Intelligence Gathering, Analysis, and Investigation
Michael R. Ronczkowski. Boca Raton : CRC Press, c2007. 2nd edition, 363pp. On order 04/12/07
In response to the current terrorist threat, law enforcement agencies at every level have expanded technological and intelligence-gathering initiatives in order to support new tactical, investigative and deployment strategies. The demand for homeland security requires that agencies hire professional and specially-trained criminal and intelligence analysts to find and pre-empt any potential threat.
Agencies must now determine how to train these analysts and properly identify and respond to critical intelligence. Terrorism and Organized Hate Crime: Intelligence Gathering, Analysis, and Investigations provides a framework for exploring the issues that all new or existing analysts and investigators must face, including what information to gather, how to analyze it, and the effectiveness of crime analysts investigating terrorism.
Training in proactive analytical-based investigation has been around for less than thirty years. Events now mandate that unavoidable importance of understanding "terrorism analysis." This expert overview provides the crucial foundation of criminal intelligence gathering and analysis and defines the nature of terrorism and its practitioners, subjects of vital importance if local agencies are to play an effective role in the battle against terror.

Understanding and Preventing Hate Crimes
http://www.apa.org/monitor/nov01/hatecrimes.html
Psychologists' research offers new insights on the emotions that lead to hate crimes and how to prevent them. Article by Tori DeAngelis, Monitor on Psychology, November 10, 2001.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

U.S. National Militias Directory
http://www.constitution.org/mil/mil_us.htm
The following are links to unofficial Web pages for each state, each of which will include links to locally-maintained constitutional militia Web sites as these become known. These pages are for the convenience of state and local militias until they can develop their own, and to provide a uniform reference system for the militia movement as a whole. Note that these pages are for constitutional militias only, those dedicated to the preservation, protection, and defense of the Constitutions for the United States and of their state, open to all citizens so dedicated, regardless of race, color, gender, or views on nonconstitutional issues. While the Constitution Society reserves the right to make a final determination of what is to be included on these pages, local militia units are encouraged to think of these pages as theirs, and we will, within reason, try to comply with their preferences on design and material to be included.
(Last checked 02/21/13)

 

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