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Human Trafficking

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Trafficking in human beings (or human trafficking) involves the movement of people (mostly women and children) against their will by means of force for the purpose of sexual or labor exploitation. Examples include abduction for sexual and domestic service (including boys), abduction for debt release, the exchange of women for settlement of disputes, forced prostitution, and sexual exploitation of children. Visit the Trafficking in Human Beings entry from the Wikipedia for more information.

"Trafficking is a transnational criminal enterprise. It recognizes neither boundaries nor borders. Profits from trafficking feed into the coffers of organized crime. Trafficking is fueled by other criminal activities such as document fraud, money laundering and migrant smuggling. Because trafficking cases are expansive in reach, they are among the most important matters - as well as the most labor and time-intensive matters - undertaken by the Department of Justice." Remarks by Attorney General John Ashcroft, 2/25/03, posted on Trafficking in Persons Information, a web page provided by the U.S. Attorney General's Office.

"According to the Congressional Research Service (CRS) and the U.S. State Department, 700,000 to 2 million people, the majority of them women and children, are trafficked each year across international borders. Thirty-five percent are under the age of 18 ... .According to CRS, trafficking in people represents the third-largest source of profits for organized crime after drugs and guns, generating billions of dollars each year." Source: "Human Trafficking Exposed", Population Today v.30 no.1 (Jan 2002): p.1,4

The Department of Justice estimates that 17,000 people are trafficked into the United States each year and forced into labor or sex slavery for little or no pay, dehumanized and abused both mentally and physically. Worldwide, the United Nations estimates that there are between 20-27 million people who are held in slavery, by violence, against their will and for no pay. Source: National MultiCultural Institute (NMCI) Human Trafficking Search Web Portal News Release, February 13, 2006.

Testifying "before the Near Eastern and South Asian affairs subcommittee of the Foreign Relations Committee, Frank Loy, [U.S.] undersecretary of state for global affairs, said that the number of victims involved in sexual and other forms of trafficking began to grow in the early 1990s and now totals about 700,000 yearly across borders and from 1 million to 2 million overall. The combined testimony before the subcommittee suggested that the trafficking of women and children, many of whom are forced into prostitution, is a worldwide human rights problem that may involve 2 million people a year ... .The victims are primarily from Asia, Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Latin America and Africa. An estimated 1 million children, most of them from Asia, will be victims of trafficking this year. About 500,000 Brazilian children are forced into prostitution each year. An estimated 250,000 women and children from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are transported per year to other countries, including the U.S. Almost 200,000 females, most under 18, from Nepal work in brothels in India." Source: "Sexual Trafficking on the Rise", Christian Century, v.117 no.13 (19 Apr 2000): p.449-450.

Humans are now the third most lucrative commodity traded illegally, after drugs and guns, international law enforcement officials estimate. Source: "Sex on the Auction Block", Detroit Free Press, Oct. 24, 2004, 4L.

Human Trafficking and Slavery. Are the world's nations doing enough to stamp it out? From the villages of Sudan to the factories, sweatshops and brothels of India and South Asia, slavery and human trafficking still flourish. Some 27 million people worldwide are held in some form of slavery, forced prostitution or bonded labor. Some humanitarian groups buy captives' freedom, but critics say that only encourages slave traders to seize more victims. Meanwhile, nearly a million people are forcibly trafficked across international borders annually and held in captivity. Even in the United States, thousands of women and children from overseas are forced to become sex workers. Congress recently strengthened the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, but critics say it is still not tough enough, and that certain U.S. allies that harbor traffickers are treated with “kid gloves” for political reasons. Article by David Masci, CQ Researcher, Vol. 14, no. 12, March 26, 2004. Note: Access restricted to MSU faculty and students and other subscribers of CQ Researcher.

Human Trafficking has even spread to Michigan. "The man who police say organized an illegal alien smuggling ring that trapped two Albanian refugees in a railroad car last March in Holland (Michigan) will be spending most of the next decade in prison.... Macomb County resident Kole Vushaj pleaded guilty in June to 30 counts of alien-smuggling and other offenses, the U.S. attorney's office said." See "Smugglers of Humans Sentenced to 9 Years" by Barton Dieters, Grand Rapids Press, Dec. 1, 2004, via MLive. For another article, see "Authorities topple human smuggling ring", The Michigan Daily, Feb. 15, 2006.


Anti-Slavery International
Anti-Slavery International's Trafficking Programme comprises three elements: campaigning to end human trafficking, lobbying for victim protection, and research on measures governments take to protect victims of trafficking, especially those who act as witnesses. The web site provides information about both current and historical slavery operations.
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Captive Daughters
Captive Daughters is committed to ending the exploitative practice of sex trafficking, with a particular focus on girls and women.
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Coalition Against Trafficking in Women
The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) is a non-governmental organization that promotes women's human rights by working internationally to combat sexual exploitation in all its forms. Founded in 1988, CATW was the first international non-governmental organization to focus on human trafficking, especially sex trafficking of women and girls. CATW obtained Caegory II Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1989.
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Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking
The Coalition to Abolish Slavery & Trafficking (CAST), established in 1998, has been a pioneer in the anti-trafficking movement in the United States and works exclusively with trafficked persons. CAST is a multi-ethnic human rights organization whose mission is to assist persons trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and slavery-like practices and to work toward ending all instances of such human rights violations. CAST has provided training and technical assistance to thousands of NGO and government personnel and represented the United States at international events on human trafficking. CAST is a grantee of the Department of Justice and the Department of Health and Human Services and, as one of the leading anti-trafficking organizations in the U.S., has extensive expertise to deliver quality training to participants.
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ECPAT International
ECPAT is a network of organisations and individuals working together to eliminate the commercial sexual exploitation of children. It seeks to encourage the world community to ensure that children everywhere enjoy their fundamental rights free from all forms of commercial sexual exploitation. The ECPAT acronym stands for "End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes".
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Faith Alliance Against Slavery and Trafficking (FAAST)
The Faith Alliance Against Slavery and Trafficking (FAAST), formed in 2003 to eliminate slavery and trafficking throughout the world. Committed to faith-based principles valuing the physical, emotional, and spiritual dignity of the whole person, the Alliance is committed to combating modern-day slavery, one of the most degrading crimes against human beings today. Members of FAAST include Project Rescue International, The Salvation Army World Service Office, World Hope International and World Relief -- faith-based, community-oriented, and non-profit organizations.
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Free a Child : Nepal Program
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Free the Slaves
The oldest and largest NGO in the US dealing with human trafficking and sister-organization to the oldest human rights organization in the world, Anti-Slavery International in London.
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Freedom Network (USA) To Empower Trafficked and Enslaved Persons
Freedom Network (USA), which was established in 2001, is a coalition of 25 non-governmental organizations that provide services to, and advocate for the rights of, trafficking survivors in the United States. Since the enactment of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (VTVPA), Freedom Network (USA) members have worked closely with trafficked persons to ensure that they receive necessary services guaranteed under the VTVPA and have also been engaged in monitoring implementation of the law.
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Global Alliance Against Trafficking of Women (GAATW)
The Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW) is an Alliance of more than 90 non-governmental organisations from all regions of the world. The GAATW International Secretariat is based in Bangkok, Thailand, and coordinates the activities of the Alliance, collects and disseminates information, and advocates on behalf of the Alliance at regional and international level.
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GoodWeave works to end child labor in the carpet industry and to offer educational opportunities to children in Nepal, India and Afghanistan
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Human Rights Watch
Campaign Against the Trafficking of Women and Girls
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International Justice Mission (IJM)
IJM exists to protect people from violent forms of injustice -- such as human trafficking -- by securing rescue and restoration for victims and accountability for perpetrators, ensuring that public justice systems work for the poor. IJM works to combat sex trafficking in India, Cambodia, Thailand and the Philippines. In the 10 years since the organization’s founding, IJM investigations have resulted in freedom for hundreds of children and women held by force in the commercial sex trade.
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International Organization for Migration
Use the search engine under Publications to find reports about trafficking.
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National Human Trafficking Resource Center
Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Campaign to Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking.
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National MultiCultural Institute (NMCI)
Human Trafficking Portal
NMCI announces that its ground breaking web portal is now multilingual and includes online videos through its Human Trafficking TV. The portal is searchable by keyword, by country, and by theme in 14 languages including Spanish, French, German, Italian and Czech. Brief videos produced by UNODC, UNICEF, IADB, WITNESS and others have also been made accessible on the site. HumanTraffickingSearch.net and its “deep search” engine provide information on such topics as: Human Trafficking, Child Labor, Forced Labor and Sex Slavery. HumanTraffickingSearch.net has over 16,000 web entries of information and resources on issues related to human trafficking and modern-day slavery from around the world. It offers a vast amount of information, updated regularly, on over 120 countries through a broad range of:
(1) articles
(2) research studies
(3) congressional testimony
(4) case studies
(5) an international map
(6) a data map on child labor
(7) a daily news service, and
(8) brief videos
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Not For Sale : The Campaign To End Slavery in Our Lifetime
Also offers a blog page
We...are a movement of students, entrepreneurs, artists, people of faith, athletes, law enforcement officers, politicians, social workers, skilled professionals, and all justice seekers, united to fight the global slave trade.
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Polaris Project
Polaris Project is one of the largest anti-trafficking organizations in the United States and Japan, with programs operating at international, national and local levels through our offices in Washington, DC; Newark, NJ; Denver, CO; and Tokyo, Japan. Polaris Project is one of the few organizations working on all forms of trafficking and serving both citizen and foreign national victims of human trafficking. Polaris Project's comprehensive approach to combating human trafficking includes conducting direct outreach and victim identification, providing social services and transitional housing to victims, operating the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) serving as the central national hotline on human trafficking, advocating for stronger state and Federal anti-trafficking legislation, and engaging community members in local and national grassroots efforts.
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Shared Hope International
Shared Hope International is a 501c-3 non-profit organization which exists to rescue and restore women and children in crisis. Our founder, former Congresswoman Linda Smith, has directed the organization since it started in 1998. Shared Hope’s domestic programs are run from its west coast office headquartered in Vancouver, Washington. Our staff consists of nine full time positions, several professional volunteers and two internship programs. The international programs are administered from our east coast office in Washington D.C. We are governed by a volunteer Board of Directors and the Shared Hope International Advisory Board.
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UN GIFT : Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking
Human trafficking is a booming international trade, making billions of dollars at the expense of millions of victims, many of them children, who are robbed of their dignity and freedom. Although most of us have never witnessed this crime, it happens every day all around the world. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), with financial support from the Crown Prince of the United Arab Emirates, has therefore set in motion a Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT).
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U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime
Trafficking in Human Beings
Human trafficking is the acquisition of people by improper means such as force, fraud or deception, with the aim of exploiting them. Human trafficking is a crime against humanity. The UNODC Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings (GPAT) assists countries in their efforts to combat this crime. Virtually every country in the world is affected by trafficking for sexual exploitation or forced labour. The challenges for all countries, rich and poor, are to target the criminals who exploit desperate people and to protect trafficking victims. As the only U.N. entity focusing on the criminal justice element, the GPAT brings special expertise to the fight against trafficking.
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U.S. Agency for International Development (AID)
Trafficking in Persons
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U.S. Department of Justice
Civil Rights Division
Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit
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U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT)
The Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) is part of the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB). The office was created in 1993 in response to a request from Congress to investigate and report on child labor around the world. As domestic and international concern about child labor grew, OCFT’s activities significantly expanded. Today, these activities include research on international child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking; funding and overseeing cooperative agreements and contracts to organizations engaged in efforts to eliminate exploitive child labor around the world; and assisting in the development and implementation of U.S. government policy on international child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking issues.
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U.S. Department of State
Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
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Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force Strategy and Operations e-Guide
Developed in partnership by the Department of Justice’s Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) and the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), this e-Guide is a resource for both established and new Task Forces. Established Task Forces can use it to enhance existing operations or as a tool to assist in the revitalization of Task Force efforts and operations. This Guide does not provide OVC or BJA programmatic or grant-specific information as it is intended to be a tool for all anti-trafficking Task Forces, regardless of funding source.
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Attorney General’s Annual Report to Congress and Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons Fiscal Year 2010
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Characteristics of Chinese Human Smugglers
Presents the findings of a study that uncovered the inner workings of Chinese human smuggling organizations by going directly to the source - the smugglers themselves. Researchers found that most human smugglers are ordinary citizens whose social networks provide the necessary connections and resources to profit from human trade. Research in Brief. August 2004. 20 pp. NCJ 204989. NIJ.
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Includes an extensive library of online resources.
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Combating Trafficking Persons in the 21St Century
U.S. Agency for International Development, Octoer 2008.
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Crossing Borders Against Trafficking in Women and Girls
A Resource Book for Working Against Trafficking in the Baltic Sea Region. 2nd edition, 1999. Trafficking in women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation in the form of prostitution, pornography, escorts, and such is a growing phenomenon in Europe and throughout the world. As a result of poverty and limited work opportunities, young women from the third world, and increasingly, from Eastern Europe, leave their countries in search of work. These women become prey to traffickers who promise such work as dancing or hostessing. Instead, these women end up living in slave-like conditions, under the full control of the profiteer/pimp.
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Crossing Borders :An Empirical Study of Transnational Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings
"This report presents the results of a study of transnational prostitution and trafficking in women, with two main goals. The report presents an estimate of the number and nationalities of women selling sex in Oslo, based on a survey undertaken during one month in 2003. Further, the report investigates mechanisms of trafficking and exploitation in prostitution, through analysis of interviews with women focussing on life histories. A particular aim is to explore the role of enforcement, exploitation and opportunities at various stages of the process. Crossing Borders also analyses how trafficked women have found their ways out again, using own resources and skills, as well as public and private helpers to cross the borders back." A. Brunovskis, G. Tyldum. 136pp. 2004.
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Factbook on Global Exploitation
The Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation was compiled by Donna M. Hughes, Laura Joy Sporcic, Nadine Z. Mendelsohn, Vanessa Chirgwin, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women from media, non-governmental organization and government reports in 1999. It is an initial effort to collect facts, statistics and known cases on global sexual exploitation. Information is organized into four categories: Trafficking, Prostitution, Pornography, and Organized and Institutionalized Sexual Exploitation and Violence. Sources were not contacted to verify information. This project was made possible with the support of the College of Arts and Sciences, University of Rhode Island and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD), Norway.
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Human Trafficking
Look Beneath the Surface: Human Trafficking is Modern Day Slavery
“We must show new energy in fighting back an old evil. Nearly two centuries after the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade, and more than a century after slavery was officially ended in its last strongholds, the trade in human beings for any purpose must not be allowed to thrive in our time." — President George W. Bush, Address to the U.N. General Assembly, September 2003. Part of the Administration for Children and Family's Campaign To Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking. Web site provides numerous resources and links.
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Human Trafficking and Modern-Day Slavery : Country-by-Country Reports
A collection of reports on human trafficking, forced labor, forced prostitution, debt bondage, modern-day slavery, contemporary slavery, forced marriage, transferring of wives, inheritance of wives, and transfer of a child for purposes of exploitation on a country-by-country basis.
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Human Trafficking of Children in the United States
This fact sheet describes the nature and extent of such trafficking and how it affects our schools. Information and resources related to identifying victims of human trafficking are also provided.
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The National MultiCultural Institute (NMCI) has launched a new web portal that provides more than 15,000 web entries of informational resources on issues related to human trafficking and modern-day slavery from around the world. HumanTraffickingSearch.net and its "deep search" engine provide information on related topics including: Human Trafficking, Child Labor, Bonded Labor and Sex Slavery. The site offers information about more than 120 countries through a broad range of articles, research studies, congressional testimony, case studies, UNODC public service videos, a data map on child labor, and a daily news service.
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Illegal Immigration and Commercial Sex : the New Slave Trade
241 page book edited by Phil Williams available in the MSU Libraries. Contents: Human commodity trafficking: an overview / Phil Williams -- Illegal migration: personal tragedies, social problems, or national security threats? / Margaret E. Beare -- Capitalizing on transition economies: the role of the Russian mafiya in trafficking women for forced prostitution / Gillian Caldwell, Steve Galster, Jyothi Kanics and Nadia Steinzor -- Trafficking in people in Thailand / Pasuk Phongpaichit -- Organized crime and trafficking in women from Eastern Europe in the Netherlands / Gerben J. N. Bruinsma and Guus Meershoek -- Prostitution and the mafia: the involvement of organized crime in the global sex trade / Sarah Shannon -- Trafficking in women and children: a market perspective / Phil Williams -- Child pornography in the digital age / Anna Grant, Fiona David, and Peter Grabosky -- The fusion of immigration and crime in the European Union: problems of cooperation and the fight against the trafficking in women / Penelope Turnbull -- Memorandum for the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, the Director of the United States Information Agency - March 11, 1998 / William J. Clinton -- October 1996 Report - presented to the UN General Assembly : note / by the Secretary-General -- World Congress Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children - Provisional report of the congress / General Rapporteur Professor Vitit Muntarbhorn.
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International Trafficking in Women to the United States:
A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime
web link
Trafficking of women and children for the sex industry and for labor is prevelant in all regions of the United States. An estimated 45,000 to 50,000 women and children are trafficked annually in the United States, primarily by small crime rings and loosely connected criminal networks. The Center for the Study of Intelligence of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) presents the full text of the November 1999 monograph entitled "International Trafficking in Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime," written by Amy O'Neill Richard.
Added to Magic.
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International Trafficking of Women and Children: Background Briefing
Testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, February 22, 2000.
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The Internet and Sex Industries: Partners in Global Sexual Exploitation
Donna M. Hughes, Technology and Society Magazine, Spring 2000
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Interpol's Trafficking in Human Beings Web Page
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A Legislative Framework for Combating Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
Law review article by Linda Smith and Samantha Healy Vardaman, Shared Hope International appearing in Regent University Law Review, 2010-11, Vol. 23, no. 2
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The "Natasha" Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women
Donna M. Hughes, Journal of International Affairs, Spring 2000
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The Natasha Trade: Transnational Sex Trafficking
National Institute of Justice Journal, No. 246, January 2001
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Sex Slaves : Estimating the Number (Frontline)
What do we really know about sex trafficking? Although trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is a global problem, hard statistics on the numbers of women involved, and in which countries, are close to impossible to come by>
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Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States
International and Domestic Trends
Janice G. Raymond, Donna M. Hughes, and Carol Gomez. Coalition Against Trafficking in Women. March 2001.
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Stopping Traffic : Exploring the Extent of, and Responses to, Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation in the UK
Prepared by Liz Kelly and Linda Regan for the Home Office, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit, 2000. 62pp. Police research series paper no. 125. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
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Trafficking and Prostitution: The Growing Exploitation of Migrant Women in Greece
This article concentrates on the rapid growth of trafficking in women from Eastern and Central Europe who end up working in the sex industry in Athens. Such movement of people is constituted around global networks of female labour. The social processes and mechanisms that produce and reproduce the somatic and social exploitation of female migrants caught in the web of the sex industry are analysed. These processes are responsible for a continuation and accentuation of women's loss of power to represent their interests, to seek viable economic alternatives. The living and working spaces of these women rest upon their isolation and individuation and total control of their everyday activities. Ethnicity, age and racialized exclusions all intersect with sexist relations and practices within Greek society and the ethnic communities under study. The interplay of these processes operates differently within different ethnic groups of women to produce different outcomes. Gabriella Lazaridis, European Journal of Women's Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, 67-102 (2001). Access restricted to subscribers such as MSU students.
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Trafficking and Sex Tourism
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Trafficking in Persons : A Guide for Non-Governmental Organizations, 2002
Trafficking in persons - also known as "human trafficking" - is a form of modern-day slavery. Traffickers often prey on individuals who are poor, frequently unemployed or underemployed, and who may lack access to social safety nets, predominantly women and children in certain countries. Victims are often lured with false promises of good jobs and better lives, and then forced to work under brutal and inhuman conditions. A report by the U.S. Women's Bureau.
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Trafficking in Persons : In the Spotlight
This Spotlight provides links to publications, statistics, legislation, training opportunities, and other resources on topics such as sex trafficking, forced labor, and child sex tourism. (NCJRS)
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2001
This first annual report (2001) covers events through April 15, 2001. "Trafficking in persons is a fundamental and crucially important challenge in the areas of human rights and law enforcement. Based on reliable estimates, as the Congress has noted, at least 700,000 persons, especially women and children, are trafficked each year across international borders. Some observers estimate that the number may be significantly higher. Victims are forced to toil in sweatshops, construction sites, brothels, and fields. Deprived of the enjoyment of their human rights, many victims are subjected to threats against their person and family, violence, horrific living conditions, and dangerous workplaces. Some victims have answered advertisements believing that they will have a good job awaiting them in a new country. Others have been sold into this modern-day form of slavery by a relative, acquaintance, or family friend. Trafficking occurs across borders and within countries. It is found in both developed and developing nations, in countries where the government abuses human rights, and in countries where the government's human rights record is generally excellent." U.S. Department of State, July 2001.
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2002
This is the second annual Trafficking in Persons Report report to Congress, as required by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, on the status of severe forms of trafficking in persons worldwide. Through this annual report, the United States seeks to bring international attention to the horrific practice of trafficking in persons. This report is a diplomatic tool for the U.S. Government in combating trafficking in persons, serving as an instrument for continued dialogue, and a means to encourage increased prosecution, protection, and prevention programs. After the release of this report, the Department will continue to engage in discussions with governments to help strengthen cooperative efforts to eradicate trafficking. The Department will use the information gained during the report compilation to target assistance programs more effectively. Hopefully, the report will be a catalyst for governmental efforts to combat trafficking in persons around the world, so that this degrading practice is eventually eliminated.
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2003
The Annual Trafficking in Persons Report is about modern day slavery and slave trading....The President, members of Congress, and I share a commitment to end modern day slavery. This report is an important diplomatic tool towards that goal. The report details international and U.S. efforts to end trafficking in persons, to protect and help victims, and prosecute those who treat people like commodities or keep them in slave-like conditions. The report emphasizes the human side of trafficking through victim stories and highlights innovative measures some countries are using to prevent trafficking in persons, prosecute those who traffic in human misery, and protect those most vulnerable to this transnational crime....I hope that this report will be informative and lead countries to strengthen their efforts to combat trafficking in persons. All of us can and must do better in this struggle for human liberty and dignity." -- Secretary of State Colin L. Powell. Additional Background Information.
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2004
The 4th annual report from the State Department on coercive movement of men, women, and children for slave labor, prostitution, soldiering, and related activities. Also cites those countries most at fault in permitting such crimes.
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2005
The 150-country report is the most comprehensive worldwide report on the efforts of governments to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons, or modern-day slavery. Its findings will raise global awareness and spur countries to take effective actions to counter trafficking in persons.
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2006
The sixth annual report on the modern day slave trade which ensnares 800,000 people. Arranges countries into three tiers depending on their degree of complicity in trafficking. Country reports describe what efforts have been made by each country to prosecute traffickers, protect victims, and prevent further occurrences. From the U.S. State Department.
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2007
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2008
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2009
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Trafficking in Persons Report, 2011
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Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response
July 7, 2006 Congressional Research Service report.
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Trafficking in the Russian Federation
Sponsored by the Miramed Institute.
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Trafficking in Women and Children:
The U.S. and International Response
This report provides information on the scope and causes of the trafficking in humans world-wide, the response of the United States and the international community, and recent congressional actions aimed at stemming trafficking. The report summarizes key issues involved in the debate over how to best address the problem. A Congressional Research Service report by Francis T. Miko, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. CRS Report RL30545. Updated March 26, 2004. 21p.
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Trafficking in Women from the Ukraine
Donna M. Hughes, University of Rhode Island. 2003. 89pp. Copyright request 2191.
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Trafficking of NIS Women Abroad
An International Conference in Moscow 3-5 November 1997 Conference Report prepared by the Global Survival Network in collaboration with The International League for Human Rights.
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U.S. Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor 2011
u.s. department of labor’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking
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"Welcome to the Rape Camp" : Sexual Exploitation and the Internet in Cambodia
Donna M. Hughes, Journal of Sexual Aggression, 2000
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