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Criminal Justice Resources :

Juvenile Justice


Juvenile Justice entry from the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Vol. 2, 2002
In addition to an overview, this entry provides commentary on Changing Social Attitudes Toward Children, Reformers, Juvenile Courts, Juvenile Crime Statistics, Changes In The System, A New Justice Approach, Getting Tough On Crime, Modern Juvenile Justice, Reasons For Juvenile Crime, and The Future Of Juvenile Justice.

As many as 200,000 youths charged with crimes today are tried in adult courts, where judges tend to be tougher and punishments harsher — including sentencing to adult prisons. But with juvenile crime now on the decline, youth advocates are seizing the moment to push for major changes in iron-fisted juvenile justice systems nationwide. Above all, they want to roll back harsh state punishments — triggered by the crack cocaine-fueled crime wave of the late 1980s and early '90s — that sent thousands of adolescents to adult courts and prisons. Many prosecutors say the get-tough approach offers society the best protection. But critics say young people often leave prison more bitter and dangerous than when they went in. Moreover, recent brain studies show weak impulse control in young people under age 18, prompting some states to reconsider their tough punishments. Prosecutors respond that even immature adolescents know right from wrong. Source: Peter Katel, "Juvenile Justice Are sentencing policies too harsh?", CQ Researcher, Volume 18, Issue 39, November 7, 2008.

Articles and Websites

About.Com Juvenile Crime and Issues Page
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Adolescent Homicides in Los Angeles: Are They Different From Other Homicides? Summary
National Institute of Justice(NIJ)/Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 2002. Summarizes the findings of an assessment of comparable samples of adolescent homicides and adult homicides in Los Angeles, concluding that gang factors loom large in the distinction between adolescent and other homicides.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Adolescent Violence: A View From the Street
This NIJ Research report presents preliminary findings from a multistage study on adolescent violence, which draws from theories of cognitive and developmental psychology to construct a framework for understanding violent behavior. Unfortunately, typical studies on violence cannot explain the occurrence of a violent event--that mixture of motivation, context, and facilitation that channels arousal into actual violence. The findings from this study indicate that adolescents should be taught negotiating and conflict avoidance skills under conditions that mimic the unpredictable nature of the street.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Adolescents, Neighborhoods, and Violence: Recent Findings From the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
(NCJ 217397, 24 pp.), a research in brief, examines factors that lead children and adolescents to violent and criminal behavior, combining a longitudinal survey of more than 6,000 children and adolescents with a study of Chicago neighborhoods.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

American Bar Association, Criminal Justice Section
Juvenile Justice Section
Welcome to the JUVENILE JUSTICE COMMITTEE, which develops CLE programs for juvenile justice practitioners, develops policies to further national juvenile justice reform, and coordinates selection of the Livingston Hall Juvenile Justice Award. The web site provides links to sample juvenile justice-related articles from the Criminal Justice Magazine, the quarterly publication for Criminal Justice Section members. Links are also provided to online publications and additional juvenile justice organizations.
Also listed under Criminal Justice Resources : Associations and Organizations
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Assessing the Availability, Accessibility and Adequacy of Services for Victims of Juvenile Crime in Michigan - 2003
Crime Victims Service Providers Survey. Michigan Family Independence Agency, Bureau of Juvenile Justice, January 2003.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Beyond the Walls: Improving Conditions of Confinement for Youth in Custody
January 1998 report.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Books on Juvenile Justice Administration in the MSU Libraries
Type in "juvenile justice administration of united states" in the subject box. Also try "juvenile courts united states" and "juvenile delinquents united states".
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 1999. The purpose of this project is to determine how youth delinquency problems develop within the context of their community, family, and peers.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Children and Guns:
A Children's Defense Fund Report on Children Dying From Gunfire in America

Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Coalition for Juvenile Justice
The Coalition for Juvenile Justice is a national nonprofit association that primarily represents fifty-six governor-appointed advisory groups that support the juvenile court system in the U.S. states, territories, and the District of Columbia. CJJ provides all of its members and the public with training and technical assistance related to the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, annual reports, a bi-monthly newsletter, and several national and regional conferences each year.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Combating Fear and Restoring Safety in Schools (NCJ 167888)
See School Safety and Violence Web Page

Comic Books and Juvenile Deliquency
Interim report pursuant to S. Res. 89, 83d Cong., 1st sess., and S. 190, 83d Cong., 2d sess., a part of the investigation of juvenile delquency in the United States. Publisher Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1955. Also available in print copy in Special Collections.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Conflict Resolution
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 1997. Teaching young people how to manage conflict can help reduce juvenile violence in juvenile facilities, schools, and communities while providing lifelong decision-making skills. This fact sheet discusses four approaches to conflict resolution education: process curriculum, peer mediation, peaceable classroom, and peaceable school.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Consequences Aren't Minor: The Impact of Trying Youth as Adults and Strategies for Reform
Despite a federal law that prohibits the incarceration of youth in adult correctional facilities, the number of young people held in jails across the country has exploded by 208 percent since the 1990s, according to a new report released today at the national press club by the Campaign for Youth Justice. States exploit a loophole in federal law, which was designed to protect youth from the proven dangers of adult jails but only applies to youth in the juvenile justice system. Congress is considering the reauthorization of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) this year, and advocates are asking that all youth under 18 be protected from incarceration in adult facilities. Campaign For Youth Justice. Justice Policy Institute. March 21, 2007.
(Last checked 05/01/07)

Co-Offending and Patterns of Juvenile Crime
Criminal justice researchers and practitioners have long observed that juveniles tend to commit crimes in pairs or groups. This newly released National Institute of Justice report, Co-Offending and Patterns of Juvenile Crime, examines the phenomenon of co-offending, uncovering several related patterns of crime. Among the study’s findings is that offenders age 13 and under are more likely to commit crimes in pairs and groups than are 16- and 17-year-old offenders. The research also reveals that about 40 percent of juvenile offenders commit most of their crimes with others, and that co-offenders are more likely than solo offenders to be recidivists. The report concludes with a discussion of the implications for policy and practice.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Crime Victim Service Provider Survey:
Assessing the Availability, Accessibility and Adequacy of Services fro Victims of Juvenile Crime In Michigan
Michigan Family Independence Agency, Bureau of Juvenile Justice, Jan. 2003. 62pp. Cataloged.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities
Rather than promoting public safety, detention — the pretrial “jailing” of youth not yet found delinquent — may contribute to future offenses. Studies from around the country show that incarcerated youth have higher recidivism rates than youth supervised in other kinds of settings. Justice Policy Institute, 2006. Cataloged.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Defusing the Myth: Prosecuting Children as Adults Doesn't Work to Decrease Crime
The most recent research demonstrates that efforts to transfer children from juvenile court to adult criminal court does not decrease recidivism and may, in fact, be counterproductive. Courtesy of the American Civil Liberties Union. June 29, 1996. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Delinquency Topical Collection from NIJ
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Delinquents or Criminals: Policy Options for Young Offenders
An online article by Jeffrey A. Butts and Adele V. Harrell of the Urban Institute, June 1998.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Derailed!: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track
On May 14, 2003, Advancement Project released this first-of-its-kind report that looks at how zero-tolerance policies are derailing students from an academic track in schools to a future in the juvenile justice system. According to the report, in the mid 1980s, a spike in juvenile crime rates gave birth to the “superpredator” theory which held that America was under assault by a generation of brutally amoral young people, and that only the abandonment of “soft” educational and rehabilitative approaches, in favor of strict and unrelenting discipline—a zero tolerance approach— could end the plague.
“In school district after school district, an inflexible and unthinking zero tolerance approach to an exaggerated juvenile crime problem is derailing the educational process,” said Judith Browne, Advancement Project senior attorney. “The educational system is starting to look more like the criminal justice system. Acts once handled by a principal or a parent are now being handled by prosecutors and the police.”
Also cataloged and listed in Magic, our online catalog.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Desktop Guide to Good Juvenile Detention Practice
David W. Roush, National Juvenile Detention Association, Center for Research and Professional Development, Michigan State University, October 1996.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

The Devil Made Me Do It: Adolescent Attraction to Satanism
Online article by Lawrence C. Trostle and Melissa S. Green, University of Alaska, Anchorage, Justice Center. The article also appears in Sharon Araji, ed., Society: An Alaskan Perspective. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt, 1994, pp. 201-218. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Disorderly Youth in Public Places
Disorderly youth in public places constitute one of the most common problems most police agencies must handle. Dealing with youth disorder requires a significant amount of police time, particularly in suburban and rural communities. Disorderly youth are a common source of complaints from urban residents and merchants, as well as from shoppers and merchants in malls and business districts. Dealing with youth disorder appropriately requires considerable police skill and sensitivity. Officers must balance youths' rights against complainants' rights, distinguish legitimate from illegitimate complaints, at times be firm and at times be flexible with young people, and remain sensitive to how the public will perceive police actions. Courtesy of Michael S. Scott from the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Disorderly Youth in Public Places
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2002. This guide provides a general discussion of the problem of disorderly youth in public places and reviews the factors that contribute to it. The guide also identifies questions to ask when dealing with a disorderly youth problem, proposes numerous responses to the problem and identifies ways to measure the effectiveness of responses to the problem.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Disproportionate Minority Confinement
2002 update
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Diverting Children from a Life of Crime: Measuring Costs and Benefits
A RAND Report (MR-699-UCB/RC/IF) by Peter W. Greenwood, Karyn E. Model, C. Peter Rydell, and James Chiesa, 1996.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Drug Identification and Testing in the Juvenile Justice System (NCJ 167889)
This 92-page Summary was prepared for OJJDP by Ann H. Crowe of the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA). Juvenile drug use has risen significantly over the past several years, with one in two high school seniors in 1996 reporting having used illicit drugs. While this problem is of concern in itself, the clear correlation between substance abuse and other forms of delinquency gives further reason for concern. While we are working to prevent juvenile substance abuse by educating youth about the risks of drug use and by reducing the risk factors that contribute to drug use, we must also intervene with youth who are using drugs. The first step to effective intervention is to identify those youth who engage in substance abuse. This study highlights findings from two complementary projects funded by OJJDP to demonstrate innovative ways to identify and intervene with substance-abusing juveniles.
(Last checked 03/17/13)

Epidemiology of Serious Violence
A Juvenile Justice Bulletin by Barbara Tatem Kelley, David Huizing, Terence Thornberry, and Rolf Loeber, 12pages, June 1997. The html file, 46.4kb; the pdf file 29.6kb. Surveys juvenile violence data, then considers four key questions:

  • At what age are children and adolescents most likely to engage in serious violent behavior?
  • How does the prevalence of violent juvenile offending vary by gender and ethnicity?
  • How frequently do violent youth commit offenses?
  • What portion of youth successfully avoid involvement in violence throughout the course of adolescent development?
    Findings from the study indicate that levels of involvement in violent behavior vary by demographic characteristics, such as age, sex, and ethnicity. "Epidemiology of Serious Violence" examines each of these characteristics in relation to violent offending patterns and discusses implications of the findings.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Factors Affecting Police Diversion of Young Offenders: a Statistical Analysis

    Peter J. Carrington. Ottawa, CA.: Solicitor General of Canada, 1998. 64pp. Identifies factors that affect pre-charge diversion of young offenders (N=94,221) in 5 Canadian provinces. The Revised Uniform Crime Reporting Survey provided statistics on characteristics of the accused and type of offense for 1992 and 1993. Factors that increased the likelihood of charges included: older age; aboriginal race; alcohol/drug consumption; type of incident; presence of a weapon; the value of stolen property; and the seriousness of the violation. The seriousness of the incident had greatest impact on the likelihood of charges being brought.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Firearm Use among Michigan's Youthful Offender Population

    A report by Beth M. Huebner, M.S., Timothy S. Bynum, Ph.D., and Sameer Hinduja, M.S., Michigan Justice Statistics Center, Michigan State University, March, 2001. Still available thanks to the Internet Archives.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Florida Experiment:
    This report from the Justice Policy Institute argues that Florida's experiment with allowing prosecutors to decide whether juveniles should be tried in adult court has failed to reduce crime and has been implemented in a racially disparate manner. Further, although it was intended to target the most violent offenders, the survey shows that the vast majority of youth referred to adult court by prosecutors were charged with non-violent offenses, the authors contend. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archives.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Girls and Violence

    Girls' involvement in delinquency and crime, though still less than boys', appears to have increased significantly in the last two decades. There is, however, little knowledge about the causes of girls' violence, and few studies have been conducted on young women's crime and delinquency. Meda Chesney-Lind and her associates have undertaken the most comprehensive analysis of these studies. They have provided much insight into this complex issue, showing significant differences between violent acts by girls and boys. This digest reviews current research on girls' delinquent and violent behavior, the factors contributing to it, and effective programming strategies to prevent it. ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education Digest No. 143, May 1999. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Girls in the Juvenile Justice System
    The latest research and studies, courtesy of Building Blocks for Youth.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Growing Up Behind Bars: Confinement, Youth Development, and Crime
    Child development and juvenile justice experts agree that, in theory, youth should not be treated in the criminal justice system in the same manner as adults. Juvenile corrections facilities should provide a setting for establishing positive relationships that influence the healthy development of young offenders. However, rehabilitation does not often enter into the current juvenile justice process in the manner that theory suggests. This paper presents an exploration of the net impact of confinement on youth age 16 and younger and proposes a research plan to examine this issue. Carl S. Taylor, Michigan State University. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Guiding Principles for Promising Female Programming
    For too long, the needs of female juvenile offenders have been virtually forgotten. But the growing numbers of delinquent girls demonstrate that our juvenile justice system can afford neither to neglect their needs nor to treat them as an afterthought.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Gun Violence Among Serious Young Offenders
    This 74 pp. document addresses youth gun violence, describing the problem and reviewing risk factors. It then identifies a series of questions that can help analyze local problems. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and lessons learned from evaluative research and police practice. (COPS)
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    High School Youths, Weapons, and Violence: A National Survey
    Recent incidents involving gun-related violence among youths in school settings have sparked fear and outrage in communities throughout the United States. The NIJ Research in Brief, "High School Youths, Weapons, and Violence: A National Survey," examines the extent to which a national sample of male high school sophomores and juniors was involved in, or otherwise affected by, firearms-related activity. The majority of students surveyed did not possess weapons, and the vast majority did not carry them outside the home. Most respondents gave protection as the primary reason for carrying or possessing a firearm, not criminal activity or status enhancement. Results of the study indicate that communities should be exploring policy initiatives that identify and address the antecedents of weapon-related activity among their youths.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    How the Justice System Responds to Juvenile Victims: A Comprehensive Model
    This 12-page bulletin was written by Drs. David Finkelhor, Theodore Cross, and Elise Cantor. Part of OJJDP's Crimes Against Children series, the bulletin introduces the concept of a juvenile victim justice system and reviews the case flow processes for the child protection and criminal justice systems, describing their interaction.
    (Last checked 03/08/06)

    Jailing Juveniles: The Dangers of Incarcerating Youth in Adult Jails in America
    web link
    Provides a summary of the risks that youth face when incarcerated in adult jails, data on youth incarcerated in U.S. jails, and a review of federal and state laws regarding youth in jails. (OJJDP)
    (Last checked 11/16/07)

    Justice by Gender : The Lack of Appropriate Prevention, Diversion, and Treatment Alternatives for Girls in the Justice System
    Girls under the age of 18 have become the fastest-growing segment of the juvenile-justice population. American Bar Association/National Bar Association May, 2001
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Crime, Adult Adjudication and the Death Penalty: Draconian Policies Revisited
    This paper explores the recent "get tough" policies toward juvenile crime by placing it in an historical context. We review some of the earlier policies that evolved from colonial society through the 19th century and the development of the juvenile justice system. We note that prior to the 19th century children were generally viewed as "small adults" and treated accordingly. Adult punishments for children eventually changed with the "child saving" movement, whereupon children began to be viewed as dependent and in need of "treatment" and control by the state. The parens patriae philosophy became the prevailing view that guided the daily practice of the juvenile court. These practices and policies, however, have shifted in recent years. The results of "getting tough" on juvenile crime has resulted in greater numbers of juveniles incarcerated with adults in jails and prisons, along with the death penalty. These policies have resulted in numerous violations of the International Covenant of Human Rights. We attempt to place these recent trends in the larger context of growing inequality, the "war on drugs" and racist practices.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice
    When communities across the country saw large jumps in the number of violent crimes committed by juveniles during the late '80s and early '90s, policy-makers reacted, supporting measures to transfer youthful offenders at younger ages from the juvenile-justice system to adult court. States also made sentencing more punitive for a broader range of offenses, which led to more youths being detained and incarcerated.

    The juvenile arrest rate for violent crime began to drop in 1994 and by 1999, it had returned to levels seen before the attention-grabbing increases. Although many have attributed the improvement to various get-tough strategies, the actual cause remains uncertain. Indeed, some of these policies were enacted after crime trends had already begun to turn around.

    What has grown clear, however, is that treating juvenile offenders as adults may do more harm than good, concludes a new report from the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine. A growing body of evidence suggests that even juveniles who commit serious offenses can be treated more effectively -- and without risking public safety -- in well-designed, community-based rehabilitation programs than in secure detention.

    Increasingly, correctional facilities have grown crowded, often impairing their ability to provide adequate educational or support services to juveniles. Furthermore, crowded conditions raise the risk of injury to both staff members and young inmates, said the panel that wrote the report. For these reasons, the federal government should provide states with funds and other incentives to develop community-based alternatives for juvenile offenders and move away from institutionalization.

    In addition, federal and state funds should be used to create treatment and intervention options that avoid grouping aggressive young people together, the report says. Group rehabilitation for troubled kids may inadvertently fuel antisocial behavior because such programs concentrate negative influences.

    Given the overrepresentation of minorities in the juvenile-justice system, policy-makers also should set aside new funds to support a comprehensive, long-term research agenda aimed at fully investigating the issue and rooting out any sources of institutional bias, the report adds. Likewise, all publicly supported intervention programs should be closely monitored and routinely evaluated -- using valid scientific methods -- to ensure youngsters' safety and determine whether goals are being met. -- Vanee Vines, In Focus, Spring 2001, Vol. 1, no.1. Review of a report by Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control, Committee on Law and Justice, and Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council, and Institute of Medicine, 2001, 404pp. Available from National Academy Press.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Death Penalty Today:
    Death Sentences and Executions for Juvenile Crimes, January 1, 1973-Sept. 30, 2002
    This study by Victor Streib of Ohio Northern University examines capital punishment for minors in the United States. He notes that the United States is the only country in the world that executes juvenile offenders, and looks at several case studies to better understand this phenomenon. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative
    A series of reported sponsored by the Annie E. Casey Foundation.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Justice (NCJRS)
    Provides a compilation of fact sheets, general resources, and specific items on :

  • corrections
  • courts
  • delinquency prevention
  • gangs
  • missing and exploited children
  • violence & victimization
    plus links to additional web sites, listservs, press releases, etc. A service provided by the National Criminal Justice Reference Service.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Justice : A Century of Change
    In 1899, when the first proceeding of a juvenile court convened in Chicago, it is unlikely that those in the courtroom were aware of the momentous impact of their actions. Yet, that beginning provides the foundation of how the Nation deals with juvenile offenders today. The Bulletin provides a thorough, easily understood description of the development of the U.S. juvenile justice system. It also uses the most current data available to look at where the system is headed and to examine the recent trend of transferring certain juvenile cases to adult criminal court. (NCJ 178995)
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act
    Michigan Guide to Compliance With Laws Governing the Placement of Juveniles in Secure Facilities. January 2000.
    (last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Justice Connection
    The U.S. Department of Justice's National Institute of Corrections (NIC) has established a blog to facilitate the exchange of information among juvenile justice professionals. Juvenile Justice Connection will feature news from NIC, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and other Federal, state, and local sources, including information about professional training opportunities and juvenile justice-related research. The blog also offers RSS and other syndication feeds.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Justice Reform Initiatives in the States, 1994-1996
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Murders: Guns the Least of It

    Iain Murray Iain Murray, an analyst writing in the Christian Science Monitor, has compiled statistics on the number of youth homicides in the United States. Murray notes that the rates of child murders in America is much greater than other industrialized nations even discounting gun-related crimes, and points out that the majority of youth violence does not take place in schools or suburbs, which have caused the recent media attention in the United States. Article by Iain Murray, Christian Science Monitor, March 27, 2000 (Page 9). Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Offenders and Troubled Teens
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Runaways
    This 86-page guide describes the problem of juvenile runaways, reviews risk factors, and identifies a series of questions designed to assist communities in analyzing their runaway problem. The guide also reviews responses to the problem from the perspectives of evaluative research and police practice. U.S. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Juvenile Violence: the Nation's Fastest Growing Crime

    U.S. News Online Special Report. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archives.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Matrix of Community-Based Initiatives
    Sponsored by OJJDP, the matrix highlights major public and private comprehensive community-based violence prevention and economic development initiatives that can assist in delinquency prevention efforts. It identifies jurisdictions across the country that are Federal Empowerment Zones, Enterprise Communities, PACT sites, Weed and Seed neighborhoods, and sites for other Federal or philanthropic community-wide initiatives. The initiatives featured in the matrix are guided by varying goals, from violence and substance abuse prevention to economic development. They also differ according to scope of the geographic area they target, from countryside violence reduction to neighborhood-focused gang prevention.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Michigan Committee on Juvenile Justice
    To advise the Governor on matters related to juvenile justice legislation and administration, to mobilize communities to develop and implement prevention services, and to create a strategic plan that sets standards, determines priorities and allocates funds for successful delinquency prevention and rehabilitative programs.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Minorities in the Juvenile Justice System
    Minority juveniles are represented disproportionately in the juvenile justice system, including secure confinement facilities. In 1997, minorities made up about one-third of the U.S. juvenile population but accounted for nearly two-thirds of the population in secure juvenile facilities. For black juveniles, the disparities were most evident. While black juveniles ages 10 to 17 made up 15 percent of the juvenile population, they accounted for 26 percent of juveniles arrested, about one-third of adjudicated cases, and 45 percent of delinquency cases involving detention. The national statistics on the racial and ethnic makeup of juvenile offenders from arrest, court processing, and confinement presented in this Bulletin raise some fundamental questions:

  • Why is the number of minority youth in the juvenile justice system so out of proportion to their representation in the general population?
  • Is the juvenile justice system equipped to provide prevention services, appropriate interventions, and alternatives to secure confinement for all juvenile offenders? (NCJ 179007)
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    No Matter How Loud I Shout: A Year in the Life of Juvenile Court

    Edward Hume's juvenile justice homepage is a vehicle for promoting his book, No Matter How Loud I Shout (available in the MSU Library Collection), but it also contains lots of informative, helpful, and quirky links--each with an explanation of what to expect. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archives
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    No Place for Kids: The Case for Reducing Juvenile Incarceration
    Locking up juvenile offenders costs states about $88,000 per youth annually and doesn't pay off from a public safety or rehabilitation perspective, according to a report from the Annie E. Casey Foundation. The report found that states that lowered juvenile confinement rates the most saw greater declines in juvenile crime.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)
    Provides information about the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Act, OJJDP publications, federal efforts and research in juvenile justice.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)
    Statistical Briefing Book
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Policies and Practices Related to Juvenile Curfew
    This paper is based on a national study of juvenile curfews. Results discuss the frequency curfews are used, the effects of curfews, police curfew enforcement practices, and related issues. Andra Bannister, Wichita State University David L. Carter, Michigan State University, Joseph Shafer, Southern Illinois University.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Problem of Lemons and Why We Must Retain Juvenile Crime Records
    The Cato Institute, a public policy research foundation in Washington, D.C., presents an article entitled "The Problem of Lemons and Why We Must Retain Juvenile Crime Records," by T. Markus Funk and Daniel D. Polsby. The article was published in volume 18, number 1 Spring/Summer 1998 issue of "The Cato Journal." The text is available in PDF format. The authors discuss the policy of expunging a young offender's record of juvenile delinquency when he reaches age 17 or 18. Funk and Polsby detail the labeling theory, distributional consequences of forgetting criminal pasts, arguments for expungement, and the defective premises of expungement laws. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Prostitution of Juveniles: Patterns From NIBRS (12 pp.) (NCJ 203946)
    Draws on data from the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System to examine this underreported problem. The authors provide a profile of juvenile prostitution, noting how it differs from its adult counterpart. (OJJDP)
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Punishing Women, Punishing Girls

    Historical piece on the New York State Training School for Girls in Hudson by Nina Bernstein, APF Reporter, V. 17, no. 3. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archives.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Reaching and Serving Teen Victims: A Practical Handbook
    Teens who have been victimized have higher rates of substance abuse, depression, and delinquency than their peers. In working with youth to prevent crime, special efforts must be made to reach out to teen victims and provide them with services to help them deal with their victimization.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Residential Treatment Programs : Concerns Regarding Abuse and Death In Certain Programs for Troubled Youth
    The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) has released a report that examines allegations of abuse and deaths occurring in certain residential treatment programs that range from substance abuse treatment programs, wilderness therapy programs, and boot camps, to name a few. The stated intent of such programs is to address dysfunctional addictive, behavioral, and emotional problems in troubled boys and girls. While this report did not attempt to assess the efficacy of such programs, or "verify the facts regarding the thousands of allegations it reviewed", it did note the lack of effective management, untrained staff, substandard nutrition, negligence, and other factors played a significant role in the deaths examined.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    The Rest of Their Lives: Life without Parole for Child Offenders in the United States
    The United States is one of the few countries where a crime committed by a juvenile regularly results in a life sentence without any possibility of parole. This 167-page report documents state and national trends in this type of sentencing and analyzes the race, history and crimes of the young offenders and is a joint project with Amnesty International.
    Note: cataloged for OPAC.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Risk and Protective Factors of Child Delinquency
    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has begun to issue a series of bulletins on child delinquency to provide the public and policy-makers with the latest research dealing with the prevention and reduction of this growing problem. As this first bulletin suggests in its introduction, "Preventing delinquency early in a child's life can pay significant dividends by reducing crime rates and decreasing crime-related expenditures of tax dollars." This particular 16-page bulletin, released in April 2003, deals with the risk and protective factors that are involved in developing effective early intervention and protection programs for juvenile offenders under the age of 13. The report begins with a brief discussion of previous research in the area, and continues on to identify some of the key risk factors that may lead to a young person's involvement with illegal and violent activities. As the report concludes, the authors note that there is no single risk factor that may indicate that a juvenile will develop a tendency towards these behaviors, but that early intervention programs have demonstrated some measure of success. Source: Scout Report, May 2, 2003.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders (NCJ 170027)
    An eight-page Bulletin prepared by Elissa Rumsey, Charlotte A. Kerr, and Barbara Allen-Hagen in the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Research and Program Development Division. Although the number of serious and violent juvenile (SVJ) offenders is small, they are responsible for a disproportionate amount of youth crime. Determining how to address this difficult problem effectively and garnering the financial, political, and public support needed to carry out such a course requires a solid research foundation. To enhance this research base, OJJDP convened the Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders, directed by Rolf Loeber and David Farrington. This Bulletin summarizes the recent report resulting from work of the 22 members of the Study Group. "Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions" uses OJJDP's Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders as a foundation to construct an analysis of risk and protective factors that will enable communities to build effective prevention and intervention programs for SVJ offenders. The report provides valuable insights into the pathways to serious and violent juvenile offending and offers empirical evidence that the key to reducing serious and violent offending lies in early prevention efforts aimed at high-risk youth and interventions with SVJ offenders.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    T. Markus Funk on Juvenile Justice

    Law review, op-ed, and magazine articles relating to juvenile crime, expungement of juvenile crime records, and the juvenile justice system generally. Includes:

  • The Dangers of Hiding Criminal Pasts
  • The Price We Pay for Cleaning the Slate
  • Youth Crime--Legislation assures past will not be buried
  • Adult Treatment Fits "Predators"
  • Forgive-and-Forget Approach Won't Halt Juvenile Crime
  • Young and Arrestless: The Case Against Expunging Juvenile Crime Records
  • A Mere Youthful Indiscretion? Reexamining the Policy of Expunging Juvenile Delinquency Records
  • The Problem of Lemons and Why We Must Retain Juvenile Crime Records
  • Distributional Consequences of Expunging Juvenile Delinquency Records: The Problem of Lemons
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Teen Violence: The Myth and the Realities

    We've been hearing a lot lately about the rising tide of teen violence in America and how a new breed of ``super-predators'' is now roaming the streets. We hear people that advocate the need to prosecute young offenders as adults for their crimes, to lock them up in prison like adults for long terms, and to execute them like adults for capital offenses. Short article by Randolph T. Holhut.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Trying Juveniles as Adults in Criminal Court: An Analysis of State Transfer Provisions
    This 85-page Report, prepared by the National Center for Juvenile Justice, the research division of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and supported by OJJDP, analyzes the principal statutory mechanisms and criteria by which juveniles are placed in the criminal justice system at the State level for serious and violent crimes. The Report also describes waiver, direct file, statutory exclusion, and "once an adult/always an adult" provisions. It also gives an account of provisions by which individual cases may be moved from criminal to juvenile court (reverse waiver) and additional related analyses. The Report is based on State statutes as amended through 1997. It includes 10 tables and an appendix that summarizes transfer provisions in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. 1998.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Violence by Teenage Girls: Trends and Context (NCJ 218905) May 2008
    Margaret A. Zahn, M.A., Brumbaugh, S., Steffensmeier, D., Feld, B.C., Morash, M., Chesney-Lind, M., Miller, J., Payne, A.A., Gottfredson, D.C., Kruttschnitt, C. OJJDP Girls Study Group Series
    Examines the involvement of girls in violent activity (including whether such activity has increased relative to the increase for boys) and the contexts in which girls engage in violent behavior. Increasing arrest rates of girls led the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to convene the Girls Study Group. The Girls Study Group examines strategies to reduce girls’ involvement in violence and delinquency. This OJJDP Bulletin assesses trends of juvenile arrest rates for violent crimes, focusing on simple and aggravated assault.
    (Last checked 01/03/08)

    Violent Neighborhoods, Violent Kids
    Office of Justice Programs (OJP), March 2002. This bulletin reports the delinquent behavior of DC boys living in the three most violent neighborhoods in DC and the community institution's involvement in their development.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Weapons in School and Zero Tolerance
    See School Safety and Violence Web Page

    What About Girls
    This two-page Fact Sheet was written by Kimberly J. Budnick, Region Chief in OJJDP's State Relations and Assistance Division, and Ellen Shields-Fletcher, Program Specialist in OJJDP's Training and Technical Assistance Division. The question posed by this Fact Sheet is one that cannot be ignored. Female involvement in the juvenile justice system continues on a steady course upward even as juvenile male involvement in delinquency declines. Between 1992 and 1996 the number of juvenile females arrested for Violent Crime Index offenses increased 25 percent, with no increase in arrests of male juveniles for the same offenses. Juvenile female arrests for Property Crime Index offenses increased 21 percent, while juvenile male arrests in this category decreased 4 percent. Law enforcement agencies made 723,000 arrests of juvenile females in 1996. Female involvement in the juvenile justice system, once seen as an anomaly, has evolved into a significant trend. State and local juvenile justice systems are increasingly called upon to address the needs of juvenile female offenders and at-risk girls. Recognizing that these needs require national attention, OJJDP has launched a multilevel approach. It includes reviewing how States are dealing with at-risk girls and female juvenile offenders, developing an inventory of best practices, producing a prototype training curriculum, and implementing a variety of program development activities. These initiatives are described in this Fact Sheet. 1998
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    When I Die, They’ll Send Me Home : Youth Sentenced to Life without Parole in California
    A Human Rights Watch report on youth sentenced to life without parole in California, January 2008.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Youth Crime/Adult Time : Is Justice Served?
    "This study, the first of its kind, takes an in-depth look at the prosecution of minority youth in criminal court." Courtesy of Building Blocks for Youth.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Youth Crime Suppression Programs
    This paper discusses some of the critical research on youth crime, describing the results of the research and its implications for youth crime suppression policies. David Carter, MSU School of Criminal Justice.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)

    Youth Violence Prevention, Best Practices of
    With the homicide rate for youth under the age of 19 averaging 9 deaths a day, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) announces the release of the 216 page publication, entitled Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action (Best Practices). Best Practices is the first of its kind to look at the effectiveness of specific violence prevention practices in four key areas: parents and families; home visiting; social and conflict resolution skills; and mentoring. The web site provides ordering information on the free publication as well as downloading links. Source: Access America, October 30, 2000.
    (Last checked 03/17/13)


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