Michigan State University

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Criminal Justice Resources :

Law Enforcement


Note: Also try Community Policing; Police Use of Force


Web Sites


  • American Police Hall of Fame
  • Bibliography on Democratic Policing
  • CopsOnline
  • CrimeSolutions.gov
  • Gary Marx Home Page
  • History of the NYPD
  • Intelligence Community in the 21st Century
  • The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA)
  • Internet Criminal History Access Tool, or ICHAT
  • Lansing Police Department
  • Law Enforcement Training Network
  • Los Angeles Police Department
  • Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) Blog
  • National Center for Women and Policing
  • New York Police Department
  • PoliceOne.com : Police and Law Enforcement Portal


    Articles and Publications

  • Bank Robbery
  • Benefits and Consequences of Police Crackdowns
  • Broken Windows
  • Broken Windows and Police Discretion
  • The Challenge of Crime in A Free Society: Looking Back, Looking Forward
  • The Changing Environment for Policing, 1985-2008
  • Changing Face of America
  • Crime, Police, and Root Causes
  • Department of Justice Guidelines Regarding the Use of Confidential Informants
  • Distraction Crime on the Rise
  • Do Police Matter?
  • Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders
  • Enhancing the Problem-Solving Capacity of Crime Analysis Units
  • Ensuring Public Safety and National Security Under the Rule of Law
  • An Eye on Detroit's Finest
  • Guidelines for Starting and Operating a New Police Department
  • Highway Traffic Safety Desk Book
  • Hiring and Retention Issues in Police Agencies
  • How to Collect and Analyze Data: A Manual for Sheriffs and Jail Administrators
  • Informal Information Sharing Among Police Agencies
  • Law Enforcement in a Free Society
  • Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies
  • Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Creating Performance Measures That Work
  • Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Information Technology Security
  • Lessons in Preventing Homicide
  • Managing a Multijurisdictional Case: Identifying the Lessons Learned From the Sniper Investigation
  • Measuring What Matters : Proceedings From the Police Research Institute Meetings
  • National Summit on Campus Public Safety
  • New Structure of Policing: Description, Conceptualization, and Research Agenda
  • On Democratic Policing
  • Overcoming Language Barriers: Solutions for Law Enforcement
  • Police Enforcement Strategies to Prevent Crime in Hot Spot Areas
  • Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives (Book Review)
  • Police Organization in Transition
  • Police Problem Based Learning : Blueprint for the 21st Century
  • Police Psychics: Do they Really Help Solve Crimes?
  • Police Pursuits : Facts, Policies, and Technologies
  • The Police - Serving the Community
  • Police Training in a Democracy
  • Policing
  • Policing for People
  • Policing in America: Assessments and Prospects
  • Policing Mayberry: The Work Routines of Small Town and Rural Officers
  • Rural Crime and Rural Policing
  • Sting Operations
  • Tearing Down the Wall:
    Problems with Consistency, Validity, and Adverse Impact of
    Physical Agility Testing in Police Selection
  • Thefts of and from Cars in Parking Facilities
  • Thefts of and from Cars on Residential Streets and Driveways
  • Understanding Risky Facilities
  • Using Homicide Data to Assist Murder Investigations


    Source Links (Alphabetical) With Annotations

    American Police Hall of Fame and Museum
    http://www.aphf.org/
    The memorial speaks to our hearts as it brings home the reality that a police officer is killed every 57 hours somewhere in the United States. Within these walls, their service, courage and dedication shall never be forgotten.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Bank Robbery
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/Publications/e03071267.pdf
    Describes the problem of bank robberies, reviews factors that increase its risks, and reviews research and police practice-based responses. This guide will help law enforcement professionals analyze their local bank robbery problem. (NCJ 218074, 88 pp.) Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Problem-Specific Guide Series No. 48. (NCJ 217862) (65 pp.) [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Benefits and Consequences of Police Crackdowns
    http://popcenter.org/responses/PDFs/crackdowns.pdf
    Michael S. Scott.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Bibliography on Democratic Policing
    http://www.altus.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=33&Itemid=64&lang=en#
    Originally published by Vera in March 1998 as "Bibliography of Policing Literature with Select Annotations," this popular resource was updated in 2004 to include many more works published in languages other than English and was also converted to an on-line database. It is now hosted and maintained by Altus, the global justice alliance that Vera helped to create and of which Vera is a member. You can search the Bibliography on Democratic Policing on the Altus web site in five languages: English, Spanish, French, Portuguese, Russian.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Broken Windows
    The 1982 volume of the Atlantic is available in the Main Library Stacks.
    At the community level, disorder and crime are usually inextricably linked. Social psychologists and police officers tend to agree that if a window in a building is broken and is left unrepaired, all the rest of the windows will soon be broken. Just as physicians now recognize the importance of fostering health rather than simply treating illness, so the police--and the rest of us--ought to recognize the importance of maintaining, intact, communities without broken windows. An article by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling appearing in the March 1982 issue of Atlantic.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Broken Windows and Police Discretion
    Available from the HathiTrust
    Also available in the Government Documents Library
    The past two decades have seen growing awareness of the complexity of police work, an examination of the use of discretion in officers' daily policing activities, and a better understanding of the critical role community leaders play in the vitality of neighborhoods. In the context of the "broken windows" metaphor, proposed by James Q. Wilson and Dr. Kelling in 1982 in The Atlantic Monthly, this Research Report details how an officer's sensitive role in order maintenance and crime prevention extends far beyond just arresting lawbreakers--how discretion exists at every level of the police organization. Historically, police have asserted authority in many ways, often having nothing to do with arrest. Dr. Kelling takes a special interest in the use of discretion to exercise the core police authority, enforcement of the law. October 1999.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    The Challenge of Crime in A Free Society: Looking Back, Looking Forward
    http://magic.msu.edu/record=b3525191~S39a
    Symposium of the 30th Anniversary of the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, June 19-21, 1997, Washington, D. May 1998. NCJ170029. Available on microfiche.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    The Changing Environment for Policing, 1985-2008
    Available in the Government Documents Library
    The Changing Environment for Policing, 1985-2008, is one of a series of papers that are being published as a result of the second “Executive Session on Policing and Public Safety,” a collaboration of NIJ and Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government....This paper explores the differences in the environment for policing between 1985 and 2008. Policing in the United States was under siege in the 1980s; crime had been rising from the early 1960s and research showed that traditional police strategies were not working (e.g., hiring more police, random motorized patrolling, foot patrols, rapid response to calls for service, and routine criminal investigation). Recent research has reconfirmed this, even though crime has declined dramatically since 1990. However, the panel found that police could reduce crime when they focused operations on particular problems or places and supplemented law enforcement with other regulatory and abatement activities....The gradual trend of government monopolization of police functions since the early 1800s is now reversing because of the internationalization of policing, devolution of policing to local communities for public security (e.g., community policing), and the growth of private policing, which now outnumbers public policing in most locations....With the growth of terrorism and counterterrorism, new forensic technologies, and intelligence-led policing, a cultural disconnect may arise between communities, who want to participate in designing crime prevention programs, and more self-directed police agencies, who tend to centralize decision-making and increasingly base their programs on evidence-based, intelligence-led policing and forensic technologies rather than place-based strategies. David H. Bayley and Christine Nixon, National Institute of Justice, 2011.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    The Changing Face of America
    http://www.totse.com/en/law/justice_for_all/faceofam.html
    Works best with Mozille Firefox.
    To understand fully what such immigration will mean for policing in the 21st century requires exploring some crucial questions. Who are these new immigrants? How many are there? Why do they come here? What new demands will they place on law enforcement in the future? How can the police prepare today to meet these changing needs? Article by Robert C. Trojanowicz, Ph.D. and David L. Carter, Ph.D. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    CopsOnline
    http://www.copsonline.com/
    This site is made by cops for cops. If you're a cop, hang up your hat and pull up a seat with your coffee and donut. You will have places to chat, read message boards and have access to the restricted area for the Copsonline monthly Magazine with training information, stories, and much more. If your a civilian then come on in and walk the beat with the men and women of Law Enforcement.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Crime, Police, and Root Causes
    http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-218es.html
    Cato Institute Policy Analysis No. 218, November 14, 1994, by William A. Niskanen.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    CrimeSolutions.gov
    http://www.crimesolutions.gov
    A central, credible resource to inform practitioners and policymakers about what works in criminal justice, juvenile justice, and crime victim services. The site includes information on more than 150 justice-related programs and assigns "evidence ratings" – effective, promising, or no effects — to indicate whether there is evidence from research that a program achieves its goals. CrimeSolutions.gov provides a searchable online database of evidence-based programs covering a range of justice-related topics, including corrections; courts; crime prevention; substance abuse; juveniles; law enforcement; technology and forensics; and victims. The site is a tool to understand, access and integrate scientific evidence about programs into programmatic and policy decisions.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Department of Justice Guidelines Regarding the Use of Confidential Informants
    http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/readingroom/ciguidelines.htm
    January 8, 2001.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Distraction Crime on the Rise
    http://blogpublic.lib.msu.edu/index.php?blog=5&title=distraction_crime_on_the_rise&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1
    Distraction theft – someone bumps you while the other picks your pocket – has been around for ages, but Toronto police want to "warn the public of this growing criminal enterprise" that they say is becoming more sophisticated. "They're targeting people in banks and around bank machines and communicating with each other on cellphones to work together as a team to victimize people," said Det. Sgt. Dave Vickers. The Toronto Star, October 27, 2007.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Do Police Matter? An Analysis of the Impact of New York City's Police Reforms
    http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_22.htm
    This study evaluates explanations that have been advanced for the sharp decline in crime in New York City during the 1990s. The authors consider arguments that crime drops have been the result of socio-economic factors, such as an improving economy, falling numbers of teenaged males, and declining use of crack cocaine. They also consider the argument that police interventions--paricularly the enforcement of laws against minor crimes, known as "broken windows" policing--played a major role. George L. Kelling and William H. Sousa, Jr. Manhattan Institute, Center for Civic Innovation, Civic Report No. 22. December 2001.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders, Second Edition
    http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/219941.pdf
    "Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders, Second Edition" (NCJ 219941, 74 pp.) is designed to assist state and local law enforcement and other first responders, who may be responsible for preserving an electronic crime scene and for recognizing, collecting, and safeguarding digital evidence. (NIJ)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Enhancing the Problem-Solving Capacity of Crime Analysis Units
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/e020827126.pdf
    "Enhancing the Problem-Solving Capacity of Crime Analysis Units" (NCJ 222841, 48 pp.) will help police managers ensure that their crime analysts are properly inducted into the police environment and that analytical work is fully integrated into departmental operations. The guide is organized around nine fundamental concerns that must be addressed when developing a problem-solving capacity within a crime analysis unit. (COPS)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Ensuring Public Safety and National Security Under the Rule of Law:
    A Report to the American People on the Work of the FBI, 1993-1998
    http://magic.msu.edu/record=b3539641~S39a
    Available in the Government Documents Collection under J 1.14/2:SA 1
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    An Eye on Detroit's Finest
    long link
    In October 2000, video cameras were installed in Detroit Police scout cars. This paper evaluates their usefulness. An Eastern Michigan University, Center for Regional and National Security, Staff and Command paper by Jan A. Johnson, Detroit Police Department, 2002. 19pp.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Gary Marx Home Page
    http://web.mit.edu/gtmarx/www/garyhome.html
    A professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has done a lot of research on undercover policing. His home page contains links to many articles he has written.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Guidelines for Starting and Operating a New Police Department
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/Publications/e0506066GuidelinesFinal.pdf
    This guide will help public officials and citizens decide whether to start their own police departments and offer guidance on how to do so efficiently and effectively. Deborah Spence et al. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (USDoJ). 2006.
    ILJ staff (Connors, Webster and Spence) , with funding from the COPS Office, prepared a useful and timely guide for governments and communities that want to develop new police agencies (or merge existing agencies). This guide was based on surveys of several hundred communities that received "police start-up" grants from the COPS Office, interviews with over 50 law enforcement officials who had recently started new police agencies, and a focus group with experts who had participated in developing start-up police agencies. The guide includes useful strategies, policies, and tips.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Highway Traffic Safety Desk Book
    http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/enforce/DESKBK.html
    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's "Desk Book" for police traffic services officers contains federal guidelines on everything from field sobriety testing, breath machines and traffic stops to highway engineering and railroad grade crossing safety. It could potentially be used as evidence as to whether proper standards were met.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Hiring and Retention Issues in Police Agencies
    http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410380_Hiring-and-Retention.pdf
    This report contains a collection of readings that examine various staffing issues in policing. These readings address three broad issues: determinants of police staffing levels; the processes of hiring, training, and deploying officers; and retention patterns associated with individual officers and staff positions. The papers are the result of an Urban Institute research project funded by the National Institute of Justice to, in large part, answer questions of interest to policymakers in the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (i.e., the COPS Office), the agency that administers the federal Community Oriented Policing Services program. Passed by Congress as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the COPS program is the federal government’s initiative to add 100,000 officers to the nation’s police agencies through grants for hiring new officers and other means. Christopher S. Koper, Edward R. Maguire, Gretchen E. Moore, and David E. Huffer, Urban Institute, October 01, 2001.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    History of the NYPD
    http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/html/3100/retro.html
    Works best with Mozille Firefox.
    Divided into the following sections:
    (1) the Early Years: the Challenge of Public Order, 1845 to 1870
    (2) An Era of Corruption and Reform, 1870 to 1900
    (3) Policing the Greater City, 1900 to 1935
    (4) The Emergence of the Modern NYPD
    Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    How to Collect and Analyze Data: A Manual for Sheriffs and Jail Administrators
    http://nicic.org/Downloads/PDF/Library/021826.pdf
    3rd edition (ACCN 021826, 220 pp.) provides guidance on how information affects policy decisionmaking. Topics include good management; data collection; how to locate and capture information; analyzing, interpreting, and sharing information; and getting the most from your information system. Not available from NCJRS. (NIC)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    IC21: The Intelligence Community in the 21st Century
    http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/house/intel/ic21/ic21013.html
    Staff Study on Intelligence and Law Enforcement by the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA)
    http://www.icjia.org/
    Created in 1983, the Authority is a specialized state government agency dedicated to improving the administration of criminal justice in Illinois. The Authority develops new information technology for law enforcement, manages millions of dollars in federal and state grants, and oversees research and policy development within the criminal justice system. The Authority also serves as the only statewide forum for long range planning and problem solving among state and local criminal justice agencies.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    "Informal Information Sharing Among Police Agencies" (Research Preview) (FS 000233)
    http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles/fs000233.pdf
    Works best with Mozille Firefox.
    This NIJ Research Preview explores the informal network of information sharing among police agencies. Through this information network, police planners contact other law enforcement agencies directly to gather information needed to manage their departments. Based on a survey administered to police planners in 360 local organizations and 43 State law enforcement agencies, the study found that the communication between law enforcement planners is frequent, well organized, and often leads to the introduction of successful ideas from other communities. Alexander Weiss. December 1998.
    Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Internet Criminal History Access Tool, or ICHAT
    http://apps.michigan.gov/ichat/home.aspx
    The Michigan State Police provides the Internet Criminal History Access Tool, or ICHAT, which allows you to instantaneously access the criminal history records of individuals who have been convicted of a crime in Michigan. ICHAT is an easy way to access this information, and is free to nonprofit charitable (the cost is $10.00 per request for for-profit businesses or individuals).
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Lansing Police Department
    http://www.lansingpolice.com/
    The largest police department in the Lansing, Michigan metropolitan area.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Law Enforcement in a Free Society
    http://202.41.85.234:8000/InfoUSA/society/ijde1197/toc.htm
    A compilation of journal articles, bibliographic resources, and web links appearing in Issues of Democracy: Electronic Journal of the U.S. Information Agency, Volume 2, Number 4, November 1997.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=1404
    Through the Major Cities Chiefs and other forums, law enforcement executives told the COPS Office that they were looking for new guidance for their agencies’ intelligence functions in the post-September 11 world. In direct response to that request, COPS funded Michigan State University’s David Carter to write a guide on law enforcement intelligence that incorporated information from federal, state, local, and tribal experts and the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan. In his preface, Dr. Carter particularly acknowledges the FBI and Bureau of Justice Assistance, and we join him in recognizing their leadership in the law enforcement intelligence field. Dr. Carter’s guide promises to help law enforcement agencies develop or enhance their intelligence capacity and enable them to be instrumental in fighting terrorism and other crimes while preserving hard-won community policing relationships.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Creating Performance Measures That Work
    http://www.search.org/files/pdf/PMTechGuide.pdf
    Provides a six-step process for measuring performance, practical real-life examples, templates, recommendations, and checklists. This guide will help agencies develop the necessary evaluation tools needed to improve programs and initiatives. (NCJ 217499) (160 pp.) (COPS)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Law Enforcement Tech Guide for Information Technology Security
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/e01071252_itsecurity.pdf
    Provides strategies, best practices, recommendations, and ideas for developing effective security policies. This publication will help readers identify and assess risks and provide ideas for mitigating these risks. (NCJ 217501) (202 pp.) (COPS)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Law Enforcement Training Network (LETN)
    http://www.letn.com/
    The Law Enforcement Television Network is committed to being the leading provider of responsive, quality training, education, information and news, resulting in a more professional, efficient law enforcement community. Offer programming via satellite to subscribers. Web site also features online articles related to programming.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Lessons in Preventing Homicide
    http://www.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/psn/erins_report_jan_2004.pdf
    Erin Dalton, Michigan State University School of Criminal Justice, December 2003. 61pp.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD)
    http://www.lapdonline.org
    Official site of one of the world's largest police agencies. Lots of information and links about this agency.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) Blog
    http://lapdblog.typepad.com/
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Managing a Multijurisdictional Case: Identifying the Lessons Learned From the Sniper Investigation
    http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/pubs/SniperRpt.pdf
    Details the "lessons learned" and recommendations for how police agencies can prepare for high-profile crimes involving multiple jurisdictions. This report is based on the experiences of more than 100 individuals closest to the D.C. sniper case along with information from focus groups and other sources. (210 pp.) (NCJ 207206)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Measuring What Matters: Proceedings From the Police Research Institute Meetings
    http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/170610.htm
    Are traditional measures of police performance still meaningful for law enforcement agencies that have adopted the principles of community policing? Measuring What Matters: Proceedings From the Police Research Institute Meetings presents a compilation of papers presented at three meetings convened to focus on how to measure crime, disorder, and fear; public attitudes and expectations; and the performance of police in light of the expanded goals of community policing. The authors examine the implications of measuring community policing performance and provide new assessment criteria for organizations to monitor their community policing efforts. July 1999.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    National Center for Women and Policing
    http://www.womenandpolicing.org/
    The National Center for Women and Policing is a project of the Feminist Majority Foundation, a national organization working for women's equality, empowerment, and nonviolence. Through its West Coast offices, the Feminist Majority Foundation has successfully pioneered historic community efforts to increase women's participation in policing in Los Angeles and to improve police response to family violence crimes.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    National Summit on Campus Public Safety
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/NationalSummitonCampusPublicSafety.pdf
    Recommendations from a November 2004 national meeting on overcoming fragmentation and promoting cooperative approaches to ensuring campus safety in the post 9/11 era. From the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services of the Justice Department (COPS). September 24, 2004.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    The New Structure of Policing: Description, Conceptualization, and Research Agenda
    http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/187083.htm
    David H. Bayley and Clifford D. Shearing, National Institute of Justice, 2001. 56 pp. NCJ 187083. Describes the current worldwide restructuring of policing, including the forms restructuring is taking, the reasons for it, and the issues it raises for governance, especially with respect to the issues of justice, equal protection, and quality service. This NIJ Research Report includes a discussion of the topics that most urgently need to be studied if contemporary developments in policing are to be understood and made responsive to public policy. In a short conclusion, the authors reflect on the meaning of current changes and the prospects for policing in the future.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    New York City Police Department (NYPD)
    http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/home.html
    Official website of one of the largest police agencies in the world. Contains much information about the organization and its efforts.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    On Democractic Policing
    http://www.policefoundation.org//pdf/62.pdf
    From Aristotle to William Bratton, the fundamental principles of democratic policing are explored in this monograph by Jerome Skolnick. Emeritus Professor of Law, Jurisprudence, and Social Policy, UC-Berkeley, and Co-Director, Center for Research in Crime and Justice, NYU Law School, Skolnick examines police strategies and practices that challenge the delicate balance of maintaining public safety without sacrificing basic freedoms. August 1999, 8pp. Sponsored by the Police Foundation.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Overcoming Language Barriers: Solutions for Law Enforcement
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/Publications/vera_translating_justice_final.pdf
    Provides strategies for developing language access plans for limited-English-proficient populations. The report provides practical guidance for law enforcement agencies about ways to address language barriers they encounter. (NCJ 217863) (20 pp.) (COPS)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Police Enforcement Strategies to Prevent Crime in Hot Spot Areas
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/e040825133-web.pdf
    24 he results of this systematic review support the assertion that focusing police efforts on high-activity crime places can be used to good effect in preventing crime. Seven of the nine evaluations reported noteworthy reductions in crime and disorder. Problems in the research and evaluation design probably accounted for the lack of crime-prevention gains in the Minneapolis RECAP experiment. This review also supports the growing body of research evidence that suggests that focused crime-prevention efforts do not inevitably lead to the displacement of crime problems (Clarke and Weisburd 1994; Hesseling 1994; Eck 1993); rather, when displacement was measured, it was quite limited and often unintended crime- prevention benefits were associated with the hot spots policing programs. While only five studies examined potential displacement and diffusion effects, none of these evaluations reported substantial immediate spatial displacement of crime into areas surrounding the targeted locations. The National Research Council’s Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices examined the results of an earlier and more detailed version of this review (Braga, 2001) and concluded that there was “strong empirical support for the hot spots policing approach” to crime prevention (Skogan and Frydl, 2004: 240).
    While the available evidence supports the assertion that hot spots policing is effective, there are important gaps in our knowledge about it. Clearly, the enforcement-oriented strategies reviewed here work in preventing crime. We do not know, however, which enforcement strategies are more effective in preventing crime and under what circumstances certain strategies are more appropriate. For instance, we do not know whether many of the observed crime-control gains were generated by increased arrests, increased contacts with potential offenders, or simply increased police presence in very small areas. This small body of evaluation research also does not unravel the important question of whether enforcement-oriented programs result in long-term crime reductions in hot spot areas. Comparison periods to detect potential crime-prevention effects ranged from only 1 month (Sherman and Rogan, 1995b) to 1 year (Sherman and Weisburd, 1995). Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. 2008
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives
    Available in the MSU Main Library
    During the last three decades, American policing has seen significant change and innovation, write the editors of Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives. In a relatively short time, they say, police began to reconsider their fundamental mission, the nature of the core strategies of policing, and the character of their relationships with the communities they serve. This book brings together police scholars to examine innovations in policing that emerged during the last decades of the twentieth century. The focus is on:
    (1) Community policing
    (2) Broken windows policing
    (3) Problem-oriented policing
    (4) Pulling levers policing
    (5) Third-party policing
    (6) Hot spots policing
    (7) Compstat
    (8) Evidence-based policing
    According to the editors, this was not intended to be an exhaustive list of innovations; instead the approach was to identify those that influenced the array of police tasks, practices, and strategies broadly affecting American policing. David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga, eds. Cambridge Studies in Criminology, 2006. (Book Review)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Police Organization in Transition
    http://web.archive.org/web/20060117010122/
    http://www.communitypolicing.org/pforgtrans/index.html

    Works best with Mozille Firefox.
    Report sponsored by the Police Foundation. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Police Problem Based Learning : Blueprint for the 21st Century
    http://staffandcommand.msu.edu/PolicePBLBook2007.pdf
    PBL represents the next generation in law enforcement training by fostering critical thinking, and employing learning philosophies appropriate in today's law enforcement world. Gerard Cleveland and Gregory Saville. COPS. 2007
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Police Psychics: Do they Really Help Solve Crimes?
    http://www.csicop.org/specialarticles/show/police_psychics_do_they_really_solve_crimes
    The subject is nothing if not controversial. On one television show an experienced detective insists that no psychic has ever helped his department solve a crime, while another broadcast features an equally experienced investigator who maintains that psychics are an occasionally valuable resource, citing examples from his own solved cases. Who is right? Is it a matter of science versus mysticism as some assert, or an issue of having an open mind as opposed to a closed one as others claims? Article written by Joe Nickell for Skeptical Briefs.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Police Pursuits : Facts, Policies, and Technologies
    long link
    Paper by Kenneth Balinski for the Eastern Michigan University School of Police Staff and Command, April 7, 2000.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    The Police - Serving the Community
    http://web.archive.org/web/20010608065751/
    http://www.cathus.co.uk/hertspol/history/police01.html

    Works best with Mozille Firefox.
    History of the British Police. Includes illustrations.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Police Training in a Democracy
    http://202.41.85.234:8000/InfoUSA/society/ijde1197/marinen.htm
    In this examination of police training in the U.S., Washington State University Political Science Professor Otwin Marinen highlights the elements of training intended to ensure that police themselves will abide by the law. An article featured in Issues in Democracy : an electronic journal published by the U.S. Information Agency, November 1997.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    PoliceOne.com : Police and Law Enforcement Portal
    http://www.policeone.com/
    In addition to news feeds, this web page provides a wide variety of policy and law enforcement information. Includes chat, online forums, grant information, and a whole lot more.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Policing
    http://law.jrank.org/pages/12029/Policing.html
    Contents include: Early Policing, Professional Policing, Private Police, Seeking Reform, National Crime Spree, Counterterrorism, Reforms, Changes In Police Agencies, Support For Police, Protecting Civil Liberties, Changing Views, and Major Challenges.
    Source : Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, vol. 2, 2002.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Policing for People
    http://www.policefoundation.org/pdf/Mastrofski.pdf
    Stephen Mastrofski, former professor in the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University, identifies six characteristics that Americans associate with good service from their police: attentiveness, reliability, responsiveness, competence, manners, and fairness. He assesses how police are doing at "policing for people" and offers a reform agenda that promotes its practice. March 1999, 12pp. Sponsored by the Police Foundation.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Policing in America: Assessment and Prospects
    http://www.policefoundation.org/pdf/Bayley.pdf
    David Bayley, former dean of the School of Criminal Justice at the State University of New York at Albany, addresses three questions: (1) what is distinctive about American policing? (2) what are the major changes that have occurred in American policing over the last 30 years? and (3) what are the factors currently shaping American policing? February 1998, 8pp. Sponsored by the Police Foundation.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Policing Mayberry: The Work Routines of Small Town and Rural Officers
    http://www.springerlink.com/content/1kul5j2k85w14j7g/
    John Liederbach and James Frank. American Journal of Criminal Justice. 2003. 28(1):53-72. Access via SpringerLink
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Rural Crime and Rural Policing
    http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/150223.htm
    An overview of the research literature and an analysis of rural crime and rural policing issues, and how the distinctive elements of the rural environment affect them. Ralph A. Weisheit, Ph.D., David N. Falcone, Ph.D., and L. Edward Wells, Ph.D, National Institute of Justice, October 1994.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Sting Operations
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/Publications/e10079110.pdf
    Describes this practice and some techniques that are used as part of it. It also examines whether law enforcement should use this response and reviews the positive and negative outcomes of sting operations. (NCJ 220724, 72 pp.) (COPS)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Tearing Down the Wall: Problems with Consistency, Validity, and Adverse Impact of Physical Agility Testing in Police Selection
    http://www.womenandpolicing.org/pdf/PhysicalAgilityStudy.pdf
    This study surveys 62 police agencies and examines the correlation between representation of women officers, and the type of physical agility tests used. National Center for Women & Policing, Spring 2003.
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Thefts of and from Cars in Parking Facilities
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/e11011355.pdf
    Ronald V. Clarke. [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, [2002]
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Thefts of and from Cars on Residential Streets and Driveways
    http://www.popcenter.org/Problems/PDFs/residentialcartheft.pdf
    Discusses a common complaint received by police in residential neighborhoods. It reviews factors that increase the risk of thefts of and from cars on residential streets and driveways, discusses methods to analyze local problems, and provides examples of successful responses based on research and police practice. Todd Keister. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Problem-Specific Guide Series No. 46. [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. (NCJ 217862) (65 pp.)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Understanding Risky Facilities
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/ric/Publications/e02071462.pdf
    Shows how the concept can aid problem-oriented policing efforts by providing answers to some key questions. This publication defines risky facilities, reveals how widespread they are, explains how they differ from hot spots, and assesses risk measurement among facilities. Ronald V. Clarke. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Problem-Solving Tools Series No. 6. [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. (NCJ 218075, 59 pp.)
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

    Using Homicide Data to Assist Murder Investigations
    http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs04/rdsolr2604.pdf
    This study explores whether routinely collected statistics on homicide can aid homicide investigation, particularly for hard-to-solve (those taking more than 28 days to solve) and unsolved cases. While most homicides are detected quickly, for up to 25% of offenses the investigative process is more complicated and the identity of the suspect is unclear. For such cases, it may be useful for the investigator to consider other sources of information to help refine lines of inquiry or establish the parameters of suspect groups, given the characteristics of the victim or the offense. Specifically, the current analysis explored the practical application of the Homicide Index (HI) to hard-to-solve homicide investigations in predominantly adult victim homicides, and considered 2 approaches to predict the likelihood of different offender characteristics: a simple frequency approach and a more sophisticated statistical modeling approach. Data consisted of 2,145 cases on the HI (covering the period between 1995 and 2000), in which an offender had been convicted of murder or a lesser offense. The statistical modeling approach predicted offender characteristics with greater accuracy than the frequency approach. Notably, the statistical model more accurately predicted the relationship between offender and victim, the ethnic origin of the offender, and the age of the offender. However, both approaches performed with similar accuracy in predicting an offender's criminal record. The main weakness of the frequency approach is that it requires the subjective creation of subsets of cases, based on characteristics of the index case. Its main strength is that it draws on the combined power of relationships held on the database to improve the accuracy of the prediction for a given set of victim variables. As such, whereas these approaches indicate some of the potential for predicting offender characteristics, they also highlight some of the practical problems of applying complex statistic al approaches to real life predictive situations. United kingdom. Home Office Research, Development & Statistics Directorate. 2004
    (Last checked 03/18/13)

     

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