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Criminal Justice Resources:

Race and Criminal Justice


Between 1979 and 1984, the number of American "juveniles sent to adult prisons rose by 48%. In 1997, the U.S. Department of Justice reported that during the previous 12 years the number of persons under 18 years of age who were sentenced to adult state prisons each year more than doubled--from 3,400 in 1985 to 7,400. The rate (per 100,000 arrested) increased from 18 to 33 in the same period (U.S. Department of Justice, 2000b). Conditions in juvenile institutions also hardened during this period. By 1985, the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that two-thirds of the nation's reformatories were chronically overcrowded (Krisberg and Austin, 1993)." (p147) "By 1996, African American males accounted for 44% of all cases referred from juvenile to criminal courts, an increase of five percent since 1987 ... .A federal study found that although minority youth constituted about 32% of the youth population in the country in 1995, they represented 68% of the incarcerated juvenile population ... .Although black youth constituted 30% of all delinquency cases processed in 1996, they represented 46% of all detained cases. By 1997, two-thirds of all incarcerated juveniles were African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans (OJJDP [Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention], 1999) ... .Black girls are arrested at over twice the rate for white girls ... and girls of color make up about 50% of incarcerated youth. A 1993 study by the National Council on Crime and Delinquency found that African American girls had an overall one in 188 chance of being incarcerated before their 18th birthday, compared to a one in 454 chance for Latinas, and a one in 1,000 chance for white girls ... )." Source: "Social Insecurity: The Transformation of American Criminal Justice, 1965-2000", Social Justice v.28 no.1 (Spr 2001): p.138-155


In a recent U.S. Justice Department "juvenile-justice report, minorities were at least twice as likely as whites to be sentenced to prison, even comparing youth with similar criminal histories. Similarly, a recent General Accounting Office study showed that minorities were far more likely than whites to face intrusive searches by US Customs. In fact, Customs Service searches did not correlate with the likelihood of discovering contraband. In at least one category, the disparity was startling: The report found that black women were 9 times more likely to be x-rayed after a frisk or pat-down in 1997 and 1998, but actually `were less than half as likely to be found carrying contraband as white women.' New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer's study of the `stop and frisk' practices in New York City, using a complex statistical model, found that 50 percent of all police stops were of black New Yorkers, though African-Americans account for only 25 percent of the city's population. Even taking into account the demographics of each police precinct and the crime rate by race, the report found black New Yorkers were still twice as likely to be stopped and frisked as whites." Source: "Opinion: New Facts on Racial Profiling", The Christian Science Monitor v.92 no.118 (10 May 2000): p.8


More than 60% of the people in prison are now racial and ethnic minorities. For Black males in their twenties, 1 in every 8 is in prison or jail on any given day. These trends have been intensified by the disproportionate impact of the "war on drugs," in which three-fourths of all persons in prison for drug offenses are people of color. Sentencing Project.


Note: Links to the Internet Archive work best with Mozilla Firefox


And Justice for Some : Differential Treatment of Youth of Color in the Justice System
http://www.nccdglobal.org/sites/default/files/publication_pdf/justice-for-some.pdf
National Council on Crime and Delinquency, January 2007.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Are Racial Profiles a Legitimate Tool for Law Enforcement?
http://web.archive.org/web/20000815234449/
SpeakOut.com overview by Silvio Carrillo, April 20, 2000. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
www.speakout.com/Issues/Briefs/1156/
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Beyond the Policy: Managing the "DWB" Phenomenon
http://www.itiusa.com/papers/profiling.pdf
Article presenting the history and issues surrounding the DWB (driving while black or brown) phenomenon. Information is given tracking officers' conduct and prevention of the violation of citizens' rights and department policies prohibiting racial profiling. Information Technologies, Inc. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Black Crime in Michigan, 1993-2000
https://web.archive.org/web/20070129013214/http://www.hicsocial.org/Social2003Proceedings/Homer%20C.%20Hawkins.pdf
Paper by Homer C. Hawkins, MSU School of Criminal Justice and Urban Affairs, 2001? 32pp.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Black Victims of Violent Crime
http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/bvvc.pdf
(NCJ 214258, 12 pp.) presents findings about violent crime experienced by non-Hispanic blacks. Comparisons are made with the victimization experience of other racial/ethnic groups. Findings include violent victimization rates by victim characteristics. Also examined are crime characteristics, including weapon use, offender race, police reporting, and police response to violent crime incidents.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Blacks are Incarcerated at Over 8 Times the Rate for Whites
http://home.earthlink.net/~ynot/blacks.html
The Injustice Line web page provides this compilation regarding Michigan.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Blacks Are Jailed More for Drugs
Available on microfilm
A new study by Human Rights Watch concludes that the nation's war on drugs has overwhelmingly singled out blacks -- even though most drug offenders are white. Researchers found that 62.7 percent of the drug offenders admitted to state prisons are black and that black men are sent to state prisons on drug charges at 13 times the rate of white men. Source: Detroit Free Press, June 9, 2000.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Books on African American Criminals in the MSU Libraries
http://magic.lib.msu.edu/search/d?SEARCH=African+American+criminals
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Books on Crime and Race in the United States in the MSU Libraries
http://magic.lib.msu.edu/search/d?SEARCH=Crime+and+race+--+United+States
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Books on Discrimination in Criminal Justice Administration in the MSU Libraries
http://magic.lib.msu.edu/search/d?SEARCH=Discrimination+In+Criminal+Justice+Administration+United+States+
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Boot Camps : A Growing Menace to African American Males
http://web.archive.org/web/20041012041028/http://www.pressroom.com/~afrimale/bootcamp.htm
African American Male Research, September/October 1996, Volume 1, Number 1.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Bridging the Information Disconnect in National Bias Crime Reporting Final Report
http://www.cj.neu.edu/pdf/final_report_post_BJS_III.pdf
Jack McDevitt. Northeastern University, Institute on Race and Justice, Center for Criminal Justice Policy Research.
Copyright request #2023. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

By the Numbers: A Guide for Analyzing Race Data from Vehicle Stops
http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/cd_rom/inaction1/pubs/ExecutiveSummaryBytheNumber.pdf
Lorie A. Fridell. Police Executive Research Forum. Executive Summary. 2004.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs
http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/dp_raceanddrugs.pdf
Reports a sharp decline in black incarceration for drug offenses for the first time in 25 years. Sentencing Project, 2009. 20 pages.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

A Contextual Study of Racial Profiling
Assessing the Theoretical Rationale for the Study of Racial Profiling at the Local Level
http://abs.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/47/7/943.pdf
(Last checked 10/25/11)

The Continuing Crime of Black Imprisonment
http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~kastor/ceml_articles/continuing.html
By The Committee to End the Marion Lockdown 3/27/95
(Last checked 10/25/11)

The Death Penalty in Black and White: Who Lives, Who Dies, Who Decides
http://deathpenaltyinfo.org/article.php?scid=45&did=539
Richard C. Dieter, Esq., Executive Director, Death Penalty Information Center, June 1998. (Also listed under Death Penalty.)
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Justice System: A Study of Differential Minority Arrest/Referral to Court in Three Cities
http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/grants/219743.pdf
The report draws on information from delinquency studies in Pittsburgh, PA, Rochester, NY, and Seattle, WA, to examine disproportionate minority contact and factors that might affect it at the police contact/court referral level.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Disproportionate Minority Confinement: Lessons Learned...
https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/173420/contents.html
A 12-page Bulletin written by Patricia Devine, Kathleen Coolbaugh, and Susan Jenkins, of Caliber Associates. Concerned by statistics indicating that minority juveniles are placed in secure confinement at a rate more than double their percentage in the overall youth population, OJJDP established the Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) initiative in 1991. The initiative is designed to assist States in their efforts to address DMC issues, as provided by the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act. Five States (Arizona, Florida, Iowa, North Carolina, and Oregon) received OJJDP funding to test various approaches for addressing DMC. The Bulletin summarizes the findings from the national evaluation of OJJDP's DMC initiative and describes how the competitively selected pilot States aggressively assessed the extent to which minority juveniles were disproportionately confined by their juvenile justice systems,designed comprehensive DMC strategies, and implemented interventions to address identified problems. While specific outcomes varied among the pilot States, the lessons learned from their collective experience should prove valuable in enhancing efforts to reduce DMC and to guarantee appropriate treatment for every youth involved with the juvenile justice system.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Dónde Está la Justicia?:
A Call to Action on behalf of Latino and Latina Youth in the U.S. Justice System
http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED467591.pdf
Michigan State University.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Driving While Black : Racial Profiling On Our Nation's Highways
http://web.archive.org/web/20020123032844/
http://www.aclu.org/profiling/report/index.html

ACLU Special Report on racial profiling by David A. Harris, University of Toledo College of Law, June 1999.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

The Effect of Mandatory Minimum Sentencing on Black Males and Black Communities (Annotated Bibliography)
http://academic.udayton.edu/race/03justice/s98blake.htm
Edward Blakemore, The University of Dayton School of Law, Spring 1998.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Eliminating Racial Profiling: A Third Way Approach
http://www.dlc.org/print.cfm?contentid=610
A policy report proposing strategies to address racial profiling. Strategies proposed include: deploy information technology more effectively, concentration on "hot spots," focus on high-risk offenders, and improve police recruitment and training. John D. Cohen, Janet Lennon, & Robert Wasserman. Progressive Policy Institute. February 2000.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Fear and Fairness in the City
http://web.archive.org/web/20040630021614/
http://www4.law.cornell.edu/working-papers/open/brooks/fairlaw3.pdf

The Legal Information Institute (LII) of Cornell University presents the full text of a paper entitled "Fear and Fairness in the City: Criminal Enforcement and Procedural Fairness in High-Crime Communities," written by Richard R. W. Brooks and published in November 1999. Brooks discusses the urban frustration argument, which asserts that African Americans in poor urban neighborhoods welcome disproportionately harsh criminal sanctions and expanded police discretion because they are frustrated with and overwhelmed by gangs, drugs, and crime.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

How to Correctly Collect and Analyze Racial Profiling Data:
Your Reputation Depends On It!
http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/cd_rom/inaction1/pubs/HowToCorrectlyCollectAnalyzeRacialProfilingData.pdf
This 158 page report is the result of a COPS-funded project to help law enforcement agencies collect and analyze data. It is particularly timely as more and more States mandate that law enforcement agencies collect traffic-stop data. This publication provides a summary of the many important methodological issues surrounding racial profiling. In addition, it provides advice to law enforcement practitioners on how to more accurately collect and analyze racial profiling data in an easy-to-read and usable format.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Ineffective Solutions to Racial Profiling
http://academic.udayton.edu/race/03justice/profiling02.htm
At first glance, the United States appears replete with laws that speak directly to racial profiling: the Fourth Amendment protects citizens against "unreasonable searches and seizures," the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments protect citizens from deprivation of liberty and promise equal protection of the laws, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 provides various remedies for discrimination. However, Supreme Court rulings have limited, and in some cases eradicated, these remedies for victims of racial profiling. Excerpted from Profiling: a Covertly Racist Nation Rides a Vicious Cycle, 20 Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice 53-90, 67-81 (Winter 2002) (292 Footnotes)
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Injustice Line
http://home.earthlink.net/~ynot/
Web page by a private attorney who documents injustices, mostly racial injustices, in the criminal justice system.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Justice on Trial: Racial Disparities in the American Criminal Justice System
http://web.archive.org/web/20060217164029/http://www.civilrights.org/images/justice.pdf
A study released by the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) shows that racial disparity in the U.S. criminal justice system is still prevalent. The report re-emphasizes the notion that there is still much work to be done in creating an equal America. According to the study, Hispanics and blacks are treated more harshly than their white counterparts during every part of the criminal justice process, from investigation to sentencing. The disparity is said to be much more significant than the crime rates of various racial groups, according to the LCCR. The discrimination includes racial profiling, a hot-button issue around the country. Racial profiling is the practice of stopping on the basis of their skin color. Another issue is "racially skewed" charging of minorities, and stiffer sentences. For example, the report states that while drug abuse rates are about the same for whites and blacks, blacks account for nearly 60 percent of drug convictions. Likewise, Hispanics now represent the fastest-growing population segment being imprisoned. Some observers say that criminal justice officials are not necessarily prejudiced, but do work from a "self-fulfilling" assumption that blacks and Hispanics are more often guilty of the crimes they're charged than are their white counterparts, the Washington Post reports. These assumptions also allow the possibility of police brutality, evidence planting and the sort. Cases of such events are being reviewed in New York and Los Angeles and have been all too integral a part of American society, the Post reports. May 2000.

(Last checked 10/25/11)

Lansing Police Department
Analysis of the Discipline Process and Outcomes, with Recommendations, for the Lansing Police Department
Executive Summary : http://www.lansingmi.gov/Lansing/police/docs/discipline/DisciplineSummary.pdf
Full report : http://www.lansingmi.gov/Lansing/police/docs/discipline/Disciplinefinal.pdf
Minorities at the Lansing Police Department have a disproportionate number of complaints filed against them by their superiors and the public. Minorities who make up 20% of employees received about 35 percent of complains and 39 percent of sustained -- or proved valid -- charges. The analysis was conducted by Theodore Curry II, Head, MSU School of Labor and Industrial Relations. July 13, 2004.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Marked: Race, Crime, and Finding Work in an Era of Mass Incarceration
Available in MSU Main Library
Reports on a field experiment in which young men were paired, randomly assigned criminal records, and sent on hundreds of real job searches throughout Milwaukee, Wisconsin. According to the publisher, all were attractive, articulate, and capable, yet those with a "record" received less than half as many callbacks as those without criminal backgrounds. Young black applicants with clean records fared no better than white men supposedly just out of prison. The author contends that such barriers to legitimate work are an important reason that many former prisoners soon find themselves back in the circumstances that led them to prison in the first place. Devah Pager. University of Chicago Press, 2007. (Book Review)
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Massachusetts Racial and Gender Profiling Study Final Report
http://magic.msu.edu/search~/t?SEARCH=Massachusetts+Racial+and+Gender+Profiling+Study+
Police chiefs across Massachusetts were smarting yesterday at a state official's ruling that 249 police departments have shown racial disparities in traffic enforcement and therefore must collect more information on every traffic stop. Report prepared by Dr. Amy Farrell et al., Northeastern University Institute on Race and Injustice. 107pp.
Copyright request #2022.
(Last checked 10/25/11)

Minorities in the Juvenile Justice System
https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/179007.pdf
Minority juveniles are represented disproportionately in the juvenile justice system, including secure confinement facilities. In 1997, minorities made up about one-third of the U.S. juvenile population but accounted for nearly two-thirds of the population in secure juvenile facilities. For black juveniles, the disparities were most evident. While black juveniles ages 10 to 17 made up 15 percent of the juvenile population, they accounted for 26 percent of juveniles arrested, about one-third of adjudicated cases, and 45 percent of delinquency cases involving detention. The national statistics on the racial and ethnic makeup of juvenile offenders from arrest, court processing, and confinement presented in this Bulletin raise some fundamental questions:

  • Why is the number of minority youth in the juvenile justice system so out of proportion to their representation in the general population?
  • Is the juvenile justice system equipped to provide prevention services, appropriate interventions, and alternatives to secure confinement for all juvenile offenders? (NCJ 179007)
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Native American Criminal Justice Resources
    http://arapaho.nsuok.edu/~dreveskr/nacjr.html-ssi
    Massive collection of web links by Charles L. Dreveskracht, Criminal Justice and Legal Studies Department, Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    New Challenges in Confronting Racial Profiling in the 21st Century : Learning from Research & Practice
    http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu/IRJ_docs/Report_NewChallenges21.pdf
    Amy Farrell, Jana Rumminger, and Jack McDevitt. Northeastern University. December 2005.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System (Book)
    Call number and location
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Northeastern University
    Institute on Race and Justice
    Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center
    http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu/
    http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu/background/history.php
    http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu/background/jurisdictions.php?state=MI
    The first link provides background history on the racial profiling controversy. The second link highlights information about racial profiling data collection efforts in the state of Michigan.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Off Balance: Youth, Race, and Crime in the News
    http://jjpl.org/Publications_JJ_InTheNews/JuvenileJusticeSpecialReports/BBY/media/factsheet.html
    Prepared by the Justice Policy Institute and the Berkeley Media Studies Group, this study of newspaper and television crime coverage found that news media unduly connect youth with crime and violence and that minority youth are overrepresented as perpetrators and underrepresented as victims of crime. Prepared by Lori Dorfman, Berkeley Media Studies Group, Public Health Institute and Vincent Schiraldi, Justice Policy Institute, April 2001.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Overrepresentation of Youth of Color in the Juvenile Justice System:
    Culturally Competent Service System Strategies
    http://web.archive.org/web/20010110052700/
    http://www.rtc.pdx.edu/fp/spring97/marva.htm

    It is widely acknowledged by professionals and advocates in the service delivery system that youth of color become involved with the juvenile justice system at rates far exceeding their proportion in the population. Article by Marva P. Benjamin, Focal Point, Vol. 11, No. 1, Copyright © 1997, Regional Research Institute for Human Services. Available courtesy of the Internet Archives.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Police Detectives Acquitted in Sean Bell Shooting
    web link
    Three New York Police Department detectives were acquitted of all charges today in the killing of Sean Bell, a 23-year-old black man. A total of 50 bullets were fired outside a bachelor party at a Queens strip club on the unarmed Bell and two other men who were injured in the gunfire. The trial has gained national attention for what was considered an excessive use of force by the detectives, who believed the men were armed.
    It's critical to point out that when it comes to public attitudes about the police and criminal justice, there's a significant racial and ethnic divide in American thinking. Nearly three-quarters (73 percent) of whites say they have a "great deal" or a "fair amount" of confidence in police officers to not use excessive force on suspects. Contrast that with just 38 percent of blacks who say the same. These racial differences carry over into survey questions about confidence in police officers to treat blacks and whites equally, with 37 percent of blacks saying "a great deal" or "a fair amount," compared to 74 percent of whites.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Policing in Arab-American Communities After September 11
    http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/221706.pdf
    Policing in Arab-American Communities After September 11 reports on a study examining how the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, affected relationships between law enforcement officers and residents in Arab-American neighborhoods. Four significant obstacles to improved relations between police and Arab-American communities were observed: mutual distrust between Arab-American communities and law enforcement, lack of cultural awareness among law enforcement officers, language barriers, and residents’ concerns about immigration status. The study reveals some promising practices for addressing these obstacles. Source: National Institute of Justice.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Policing on American Indian Reservations
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/188095.pdf
    Stewart Wakeling, Miriam Jorgensen, Susan Michaelson, and Manley Begay, National Institute of Justice, 2001. 98 pp. NCJ 188095. Describes the demands placed on reservation police departments and explores the constraints within which these police departments operate. This NIJ Research Report, cosponsored by the Office of Community Oriented Policing, contains findings from a literature review, a two-part survey of Indian police departments, and site visits to four departments. The typical department described in the report is attempting to cope with rising crime, increased police involvement in the social concerns that relate to crime, and greater community demands for police services. Applying research findings on effective governance in Indian Country, the authors conclude that community policing may be an effective tool for improving the effectiveness of policing on reservations.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Politics of Race and Crime in the United States
    http://web.archive.org/web/20040608013555/http://www.solent.ac.uk/law/prcus.html
    Lecture by Professor Stuart A Scheingold, University of Washington, given at the Southhampton Institute, Southhampton, England, and reprinted in the Southhampton Institute Law Review, Volume 1, Number 1, June 1997.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Practitioners Guide for Addressing Racial Profiling
    http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu/IRJ_docs/Report_PractitionersGuide.pdf
    Karl Lamberth, Jerry Clayton, John Lamberth, Amy Farrell, and Jack McDevitt. Northeastern University. Spring 2005.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Profiles in Injustice: Why Racial Profiling Cannot Work
    http://magic.lib.msu.edu/search/t?SEARCH=profiles+in+injustice
    Profiles In Injustice is the definitive work on racial profiling – the controversial use of race or ethnic appearance to predict criminal behavior. Many believe that racial profiling is just a "common sense" way to fight crime. But Profiles In Injustice shows that this is a myth – one of those beliefs that is widely held and seldom questioned, but flat out wrong. Available in both the MSU Main Library and the MSU DCL Library. Contents: Profiles in injustice: American life under the regime of racial profiling -- Profiling past and present, and high-discretion police tactics -- Profiling unmasked: from criminal profiling to racial profiling -- The hard numbers: why racial profiling doesn't add up -- The costs of racial profiling: casualties and collateral damage -- It's not just driving while Black: how profiling affects Latinos, Asians, and Arabs -- Meeting the challenge of racial profiling -- A case study: how one police agency changed for the better -- Conclusion: the self-fulfilling prophecy and the future.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Punishment and Prejudice: Racial Disparities in the War on Drugs
    http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/usa/
    Since the mid 1980s, the United States has undertaken aggressive law enforcement strategies and criminal justice policies aimed at curtailing drug abuse. The costs and benefits of this national war on drugs are fiercely debated. What is not debatable, however, is its impact on black Americans. Ostensibly color blind, the war on drugs has been waged disproportionately against black Americans. Our research shows that blacks comprise 62.7 percent and whites 36.7 percent of all drug offenders admitted to state prison, even though federal surveys and other data detailed in this report show clearly that this racial disparity bears scant relation to racial differences in drug offending. There are, for example, five times more white drug users than black. Relative to population, black men are admitted to state prison on drug charges at a rate that is 13.4 times greater than that of white men. In large part because of the extraordinary racial disparities in incarceration for drug offenses, blacks are incarcerated for all offenses at 8.2 times the rate of whites. One in every 20 black men over the age of 18 in the United States is in state or federal prison, compared to one in 180 white men. Courtesy of Human Rights Watch, May 2000.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Race and Anti-Gang Ordinances
    http://academic.udayton.edu/race/03justice/crime07.htm
    In the past decade, cities and states have redoubled their efforts to target street gangs as part of a high-profile blitz against street crime. Since California adopted its Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act (STEP Act) in 1988, twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia have passed anti-gang ordinances. Traditional gang strongholds like Chicago and Los Angeles also have been crafting ever-tougher measures, testing the line between civil order and civil rights in inner cities likened to war zones. Excerpted from: Kim Strosnider, Anti-Gang Ordinances after City of Chicago V. Morales: the Intersection of Race, Vagueness Doctrine, and Equal Protection in the Criminal Law , 39 American Criminal Law Review 101-141, 101-104 (Winter, 2002) (331 Footnotes Omitted)
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Race and Ethnicity and Crime entry from Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Vol. 2, 2002
    http://law.jrank.org/pages/12138/Race-Ethnicity.html
    The increasing diversity of the U.S. population raises difficult issues in the criminal justice system. Contents include: Race In U.s. Legal History, Native Americans, Black Americans And Crime, Policing And Minorities, Sentencing And Minorities, Incarceration And Minorities, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Violence In Minority Communities, Hate Crimes, "three Strikes" Laws, and Reasons For High Minority Crime Rates.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Race and Justice Clearinghouse
    http://www.sentencingproject.org/clearinghouse/
    Sponsored by the Sentencing Project, the Race and Justice Clearinghouse provides a resource for information, analysis, and commentary on race and ethnicity as they interact with the criminal justice and juvenile justice systems. The Clearinghouse contains information and tools for policymakers, practitioners, and advocates to understand racial disparities so they can be addressed, and make the criminal justice system more fair and effective.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Race and the Drug War
    http://www.lindesmith.org/race/
    Despite the fact that drug use is more or less consistent across racial lines, many punitive drug laws are based on beliefs that certain communities of color commonly abuse certain substances. Due to the racial injustices caused by the drug war, supporting drug policy reform can help end racial inequality. Drug Policy Alliance is drawing attention to these disproportionate impacts of the drug war and "Breaking the Chains" in the war on people of color.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Race and the Justice System
    http://www.justicetalking.org/ShowPage.aspx?ShowID=635
    Several high-profile court cases around the country are raising racial tensions. Some human rights organizations say the example of the Jena 6, the story of Martin Lee Anderson and other cases show how a range of policies are working together to unfairly channel black men and boys into the criminal justice system at younger ages and for minor offenses. But some say there’s a lot of gray in between the black and white of race and justice in America. Join us for this edition of Justice Talking as we take a look at race and the justice system. Source : Justice Talking Blog sponsored by the Annenberg Public Policy Center.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Race and Wrongful Convictions in the United States
    https://www.law.umich.edu/special/exoneration/Documents/Race_and_Wrongful_Convictions.pdf
    A new report from the National Registry of Exonerations has confirmed what we already knew : Black people are more likely to be wrongfully convicted than their white counterparts, and they are also more likely to spend a longer time behind bars before they are exonerated. Although black Americans make up a mere 13 percent of the population, they constitute 47 percent of the 1,900 exonerations listed in the registry as of October 2016. The joint project between the University of California, Irvine, the University of Michigan Law School and the Michigan State University College of Law focuses on three types of crime that produce the largest number of exonerations on the registry: murder, sexual assault and drug crimes. National Registry of Exonerations, March 7, 2017.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Race, Rights, and Police Brutality in the United States of America
    http://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/usa/document.do?id=133746465C2D34CA8025690000692D98
    Amnesty International's site includes the extensive 1999 report "Race, Rights, and Police Brutality"; police statements on specific brutality cases; information on Amnesty's campaigns for human rights; and numerous links to other related sites.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination
    Volume V: The Los Angeles Report
    http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/larpt/main.htm
    U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. May 1999.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racial Disparity News from the Sentencing Project
    http://www.sentencingproject.org/template/page.cfm?id=122
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racial Fairness in the Courts: Resource Guide
    http://www.ncsconline.org/WC/CourTopics/ResourceGuide.asp?topic=RacFai
    National Center for State Courts, last modified April 25, 2007.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racial Profiling: A Comprehensive Legal Approach
    http://academic.udayton.edu/race/03justice/profiling01.htm
    One police chief noted: "Until they define [racial profiling], we can't really discuss it . . . . It means too many things to too many people." Indeed, no social or legal consensus exists on what degree of disparity in police treatment is tolerable and under what conditions." Excerpted from: Brandon Garrett, Remedying Racial Profiling, 33 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 41-148, 107-140 (Fall 2001)(343 Footnotes omitted)
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Center
    see Northeastern University, Institute on Race and Justice

    Racial Profiling in Virginia: An Analysis of State and Local Law Enforcement Practices
    http://web.archive.org/web/20060501183142/http://www.vsp.state.va.us/Racial+Profiling+Study.pdf
    Controversial report on a year-long study by the State Police which found 63 allegations of racial profiling and rejected all of them as unfounded. January 2002. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racial Profiling: Issues and Responses for the Lansing, Michigan Police Department
    http://www.lansingmi.gov/Lansing/police/docs/traffic_stop/policy_paper.pdf
    Prepared by David L. Carter and Andra J. Katz-Bannister, December 2000.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racial Profiling: Limited Data Available on Motorist Stops
    http://www.gao.gov/new.items/gg00041.pdf
    U.S. General Accounting Office report, March 2000.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racial Profiling : The State of the Law
    http://www.ethicsinstitute.com/pdf/Racial%20Profiling%20State%20Laws.pdf
    Report by the Police Foundation.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racial Profiling: What Does the Data Mean?
    A Practitioner’s Guide to Understanding Data Collection & Analysis
    http://www.aele.org/data.html
    Many people believe data collection is necessary to end racial profiling. Others believe data collection offers no practical value and simply validates what is already known. Opponents of data collection often cite the lack of credible analysis benchmarks as their primary basis of opposition. Consequently, the issue of data collection and analysis is the most controversial issue surrounding racial profiling. Article by Captain Ronald L. Davis, Region Vice President, National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE). Courtesy of the Americans for Effective Law Enforcement.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racially Biased Policing: A Principled Response
    http://magic.msu.edu/search~/t?SEARCH=Racially+Biased+Policing%3A+A+Principled+Response
    Available as book in Main Library Stacks HV8141 .R32 2001
    Provides guidance to police agencies responding to “racial profiling” and the perceptions of its practice. Lorie Fridell, Robert Lunney, Drew Diamond and Bruce Kubu. 2001. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. 2001.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Racism, Ethnology, and Criminology
    http://www.kcl.ac.uk/schools/law/research/rec/
    The Racism, Ethnicity & Criminology Round Table has been created to provide a forum for discussing racism and ethnicity within criminology and related disciplines. The discussion group is co-ordinated by Benjamin Bowling (King's College London), Coretta Phillips (London School of Economics) and Andrew Zurawan. This group is the product of a round table discussion held at the 1997 British Criminology Conference in Belfast. Also contains links to web resources.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Reducing Racial Disparity in the Criminal Justice System : A Manual for Practitioners and Policymakers
    http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_reducingracialdisparity.pdf
    A comprehensive guide to analyzing and responding to racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Provides strategies for addressing disparities at each stage of the system, as well as 17 “best practices” illustrating practitioner approaches for enhancing fairness. Sentencing Project, 2008. 66 pages
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Report: U.S. Criminal Justice System Unfair, Unjust for Hispanics
    http://news.msu.edu/story/669/&keyword_search=report&keyword_action=exact_phrase&perPage=25
    Hispanics are overrepresented in the nation’s criminal justice system, with Hispanic defendants imprisoned three times as often and detained before trial for first-time offenses almost twice as often as whites, despite being the least likely of all ethnic groups to have a criminal history, a report released today has found.
    Commissioned by the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the nation’s largest Hispanic civil rights organization, the report – Lost Opportunities: The Reality of Latinos in the U.S. Criminal Justice System – also found that Hispanics represented 13 percent of the U.S. population in 2000, but accounted for 31 percent of those incarcerated in the federal criminal justice system. Hispanics have one chance in six of being confined in prison during their lifetimes, the authors found.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Report Finds Race Disparity in Drug Incarceration Rate
    Available on microfilm
    In 14 years of the war on drugs, Michigan and several other states have imprisoned more nonviolent, young, black drug offenders than rapists and murderers, according to a study released by the Justice Policy Institute. Source: Ruby L. Bailey, Detroit Free Press, July 28, 2000, p. 11A.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Report Finds Racial Gap in Drug Arrests
    http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/us/06disparities.html
    More than two decades after President Ronald Reagan escalated the war on drugs, arrests for drug sales or, more often, drug possession are still rising. And despite public debate and limited efforts to reduce them, large disparities persist in the rate at which blacks and whites are arrested and imprisoned for drug offenses, even though the two races use illegal drugs at roughly equal rates. Article by Erik Eckholm, New York Times, May 6, 2008.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Resource Guide on Racial Profiling Data Collection Systems
    Promising Practices and Lessons Learned
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/184768.pdf
    This document provides an overview of the nature of racial profiling; a description of data collection and its purpose; current activities in California, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Great Britain; and recommendations for the future. Deborah Ramirez, Jack McDevitt, and Amy Farrell, Northwestern University. November 2000, 70pp.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Resources for Indian Country Jails
    http://www.nicic.org/pubs/2002/017615.pdf
    Selected bibliography by the National Institute for Corrections, February 2002, 42pp.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Threat and Humiliation: Racial Profiling, Domestic Security, and Human Rights in the United States
    http://www.amnestyusa.org/racial_profiling/report/rp_report.pdf
    Amnesty International USA September 14, 2004 Amnesty International USA has released its first report on the widespread problem of racial profiling by law enforcement in the United States. Highlights of the report include examples of how racial profiling undermines domestic security, first-hand stories from a wide range of victims, analysis of current federal efforts to end the problem, and a state-by-state survey of existing legislation. 2004. 66pp. Copyright request 2153
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Unlawful Motives and Race Based Arrest for Minor Offenses
    http://web.archive.org/web/20061002161243/http://www.cjcj.org/pdf/cooper.pdf
    Through a legal, sociological and theoretical analysis, this paper shows how two U.S. Supreme Court decisions have consequences that exacerbate the epidemic of racially discriminatory policing. Whren v. United States, 517 U.S. 806 (1996) allows an officer to engage in racial profiling by legalizing a traffic stop (despite any potential or probable racist motivations) as long as the officer has probable cause. Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 69 U.S.L.W. 4262 (U.S. April 24, 2001) elevates the effects of profiling by allowing the officer to decide whether to issue a citation or to take the driver and passengers to jail. This decision enables an officer to have one standard of policing for whites and another for minorities. When these court decisions are employed contemporaneously, they translate to mean that an officer's racially motivated actions would not be deemed in violation of the Fourth Amendment. Had the reasonableness requirement of the Fourth Amendment been interpreted properly by the U.S. Supreme Court in the Atwater and Whren cases, there would be a better chance of stopping racially discriminatory policing.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Vortex: The Concentrated Racial Impact of Drug Imprisonment and the Characteristics of Punitive Counties
    http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/07-12_REP_Vortex_AC-DP.pdf
    Phillip Beatty, Amanda Petteruti and Jason Ziedenberg. Justice Policy Institute. December 4, 2007.
    A new report released today by the Justice Policy Institute (JPI) finds that 97 percent of the nation’s large-population counties imprisoned African Americans at a higher rate than whites. The report documents racial disparities in the use of prison for drug offenses in 193 of the 198 counties that reported to government entities. “The Vortex: The Concentrated Racial Impact of Drug Imprisonment and the Characteristics of Punitive Counties,” found that counties with higher poverty rates, larger African-American populations and larger police or judicial budgets imprison people for drug offenses at higher rates than counties without these characteristics. These relationships were found to be independent of whether the county actually had a higher rate of crime. (The findings for the 198 counties.) “The Vortex” is the first study to examine the relationships between these sociodemographic structures and the specific annual rate at which people are admitted to prison for drug offenses, and the first to localize the racially disparate impact of drug imprisonment at the county level.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Without Sanctuary: Photographs and Postcards of Lynching in America
    http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/
    Searching through America's past for the last 25 years, collector James Allen uncovered an extraordinary visual legacy: photographs and postcards taken as souvenirs at lynchings throughout America. With essays by Hilton Als, Leon Litwack, Congressman John Lewis and James Allen, these photographs have been published as a book – "Without Sanctuary" by Twin Palms Publishers . Please be aware before entering the site that much of the material is very disturbing. Accompaning book is available in MSU Main Library.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

    Wrong Then, Wrong Now: Racial Profiling Before and After September 11
    http://www.civilrights.org/publications/reports/racial_profiling/
    A report comparing the practice of "traditional" street-level racial profiling with a new form of post-9/11 "anti-terror" profiling of Arabs, Muslims, South Asians, and Sikhs.
    (Last checked 10/25/11)

     

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