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Criminal Justice Resources :

School Safety and Violence


According to a survey of crime and safety in Michigan schools, there were "5,316 incidents of physical violence or assault, or about five for every 1,000 students. 3,188 reports of sexual assault, or three for every 1,000 students. 5,382 larcenies, about five for every 1,000 students. In comparison, the FBI's crime statistics for Michigan last year showed about 3.5 violent crimes--murders, rapes, aggravated assaults, robberies--for every 1,000 people and about 41 incidents of all types of crime, including non-violent property crime, for every 1,000 state citizens. The state school crime report also found: 670 weapons on school property. 240 bomb threats in schools. 1,286 acts of vandalism and a total of $302,000 worth of property damage. 501 cases of illegal drug use or drug overdose on school property that were reported to police. 2,270 cases of minors in possession of alcohol or tobacco at school. 32 suicide attempts on school property." Source: "New Crime Survey Useless to Schools", Detroit News (30 Nov 2001): p.1,5 secA


"Victimization in the nation's schools has decreased since 1992, according to a new report by the U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and the Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics. `Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2001' reports that, between 1992 and 1999, violent victimization rates at schools generally declined from 48 crimes per 1,000 students ages 12 through 18 to 33 per 1,000 students. Data also indicates that, between 1995 and 1999, the percentage of students who said they were the victims of any crime of violence or theft at school decreased from 10 to 8 percent. During 1999, students were victims of about 2.5 million crimes at school, 1.6 million thefts, and 880,000 nonfatal violent crimes, including about 186,000 serious violent crimes (rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault). In comparison, students were victims of 2.1 million crimes away from school: 1 million thefts and 1.1 million nonfatal violent crimes, including 476,000 serious violent crimes. Over the 1995-1999 period, teachers were the victims of 1,708,000 nonfatal crimes at school, including 1,073,000 thefts and 635,000 violent crimes. On a per teacher basis, this translates to 79 crimes per 1,000 teachers annually." Source: FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin v.71 no.3 (Mar 2002): p.13


School violence, although generally decreasing in the United States, is under-reported in many schools, according to a new report from the Reason Foundation. School crime data are largely unavailable and incidences of violence often downplayed. For the full article, see Kat McGreevy, "School Violence Is Under-Reported", School Reform News, April 1, 2005.


[Organizations]
[Publications]


Organizations Dealing with School Violence

Center for the Prevention of School Violence
http://www.ncdjjdp.org/cpsv/
Established in 1993, the Center serves as a primary point of contact for dealing with the problem of school violence. The Center focuses on ensuring that schools are safe and secure so that every student is able to attend a school that is safe and secure, one that is free of fear and conducive to learning. Located at the North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C.
(Last checked 03/19/12)

Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence
http://www.Colorado.EDU/cspv/
Violence in America has reached epidemic proportions. Today, all Americans are touched directly or indirectly by violent acts. In response, the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (CSPV) was founded in 1992 with a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York to provide informed assistance to groups committed to understanding and preventing violence, particularly adolescent violence. Since that time, our mission has expanded to encompass violence across the life course. Located at the University of Colorado, Boulder.
(Last checked 03/19/12)

Hamilton Fish Institute
http://www.hamfish.org/
As part of its mission to make schools safer for learning, this institute has compiled information on school violence and assessment tools for tracking school violence.
(Last checked 03/19/12)

National Alliance for Safe Schools
http://www.safeschools.org/
School violence is not only an urban problem. Today, all schools must have an active plan for creating and maintaining a healthy and safe environment for students and faculty.
(Last checked 03/19/12)

National Association of School Safety and Law Enforcement Officers
http://www.nassleo.org/
(Last checked 03/19/12)

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities
Disaster Preparedness for Schools
Resource List
http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/disaster.cfm
NCEF's resource list of links, books, and journal articles on building or retrofitting schools to withstand natural disasters and terrorism, developing emergency preparedness plans, and using school buildings to shelter community members during emergencies.
(Last checked 03/19/12)

National Education Association
School Safety
http://www.nea.org/home/16364.htm
Statements, publications, and advice from the NEA.
(Last checked 03/19/12)

National Resource Center for Safe Schools
Also know as SafetyZone
http://www.safetyzone.org/
Funded by the U.S. Departments of Justice and Education, this center works with schools, communities, State and local education agencies, and others to create safe learning environments and prevent school violence. The Center helps schools develop and implement comprehensive safe school plans, provides onsite training and consultation to schools and communities, creates and distributes resource materials and tools, provides Web-based information services, and partners with Stte-level agencies to increase State capacity to assist local education agencies.
(Last checked 03/19/12)

National School Safety and Security Services
http://www.schoolsecurity.org/
A Cleveland (Ohio)-based, leading national consulting firm specializing in school security and crisis preparedness training, security assessments, and related safety consulting for K-12 schools, law enforcement, public safety and other youth safety providers. President, Ken Trump. Web page also offers free resources as well, including:

  • Heightened school security procedures during terrorist threats
  • Biological & chemical threats (including anthrax, mail handling)
  • 2002 National School Resource Officer Survey on terrorism & school safety
  • General recommendations related to terrorism and school safety
  • 9/11 anniversary issues
  • Additional information sources
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    National School Safety Center
    http://www.schoolsafety.us/
    To serve as a catalyst and advocate for the prevention of school crime and violence by providing information and resources and identifying strategies and promising programs which support safe schools for school children worldwide. Web site includes resources for educators, parents, and reporters, plus web links.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    U.S. Department of Education
    Emergency Planning
    Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools
    http://www.ed.gov/emergencyplan/
    "U.S. Secretary of Education Rod Paige has unveiled this new web resource designed to be a one-stop shop that provides school leaders with information they need to plan for any emergency, including natural disasters, violent incidents and terrorist acts."
    (Last checked 03/19/12)


    Publications Related to School and Youth Violence

    5 Lessons Learned From the Platte Canyon School Shooting
    http://www.campussafetymagazine.com/Articles/?ArticleID=130
    It has been more than a year since a gunman barricaded himself and seven female students inside a Bailey, Colo., classroom. Although this incident resulted in the tragic death of one student, experts have gleaned valuable information from this shooting and offer best practices that other campuses can incorporate into their emergency plans. Article by Kate M. Dempsey and Lori R. Hodges, Campus Safety Magazine, Nov/Dec 2007.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Addressing School-Related Crime and Disorder
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/cd_rom/solution_gang_crime/pubs/AddressingSchoolRelatedCrimeandDisorder.pdf
    Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2001. This report is based on the activities of COPS School Based Partnership grantees. Tips and recommendations are provided for developing successful school-based, problem-solving efforts.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Annual Report On School Safety (1st, 1998)
    http://www.ed.gov/pubs/AnnSchoolRept98/index.html
    http://www.ed.gov/PDFDocs/schoolsafety.pdf
    Following the tragic shooting at West Paducah High School in December 1997, President Clinton directed the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice to prepare, for the first time, an annual report on school safety. The first report provides parents, schools, and communities with an overview of the scope of school crime, and describes actions schools and communities can take to address this critical issue. Even more timely now that another tragedy has occured in Littleton, Colorado.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Annual Report on School Safety (2nd, 1999)
    http://www.ed.gov/PDFDocs/InterimAR.pdf
    Updated description of the nature and extent of crime and violence on school property. Describes measures some schools have taken to prevent and address school violence.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Annual Report on School Safety (3rd, 2000)
    http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/193163.pdf
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Approaches to School Safety In America's Largest Cities
    http://www.vera.org/download?file=65/apprchs_school_safety.pdf
    A report by Melorra Sochet of the Vera Institute of Justice. Prepared for the New York State Governor's Task Force on School Safety in the summer of 1999, "Approaches to School Safety in America's Largest Cities" shows the ways in which school systems and state and local governments in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston and Philadelphia structure their institutions to address school safety. Much of the report was later incorporated into the Task Force's final report and recommendations, which were endorsed by the Governor and released to the public in October 1999. 60pp.
    (Last checked 10/04/05)

    Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools
    As a guide for schools and law enforcement agencies, reviews such security measures as video surveillance cameras and metal detectors, their costs, strengths and weaknesses, and legal issues that may be involved in their use. Also available in the MSU Main Library Government Documents stacks.
    Last checked 10/04/05)

    The Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools
    A Guide for Schools and Law Enforcement Agencies
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/school/178265.pdf
    Because of recent school violence episodes, communities around the country have put pressure on school districts to incorporate more extensive security measures into their safety programs. The Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools is a guide to help school administrators and their colleagues in law enforcement analyze a school's vulnerability to violence, theft, and vandalism, and research possible technologies to effectively address these problems. This NIJ Research Report is based on a 7-year study of more than 100 schools and offers practical guidance on several aspects of security, including security concepts and operational issues, video surveillance, weapons detection devices, entry controls, and duress alarms. National Institute of Justice. Sept. 1999. 140pp.
    (Last checked 10/04/05)

    Are America's Schools Safe? Students Speak Out: 1999 School Crime Supplement
    http://www.safetyzone.org/pdfs/are_americas_schools_safe.pdf
    This report presents the most recent information from students regarding school crime and violence. The data presented in the report are from the 1999 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Students between the ages of 12 and 18 are asked about experiencing criminal victimization, availability of drugs and alcohol, presence of street gangs, presence of weapons, experiencing hate-related words and graffiti, bullying, avoiding school, and fear of attending school. National Center for Education Statistics, November 2002 (211 pages)
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Bath School Disaster
    http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~bauerle/disaster.htm
    http://daggy.name/tbsd/index.htm
    http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/history/bath/index_1.html
    You Tube Video of Bath Bombing Victims
    Still the worst case of school violence ever recorded. We live in an age where we think that schools shootings, bombings, and the like are only a modern phenomenon. It’s not the type of thing that we would have expected to happen in the 1920s. And in Bath, Michigan.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Blueprints for Violence Prevention
    http://www.safetyzone.org/pdfs/blueprints_2004.pdf
    Describes the Blueprints for Violence Prevention initiative, presents lessons learned about program implementation, and provides recommendations for program designers, funders, and implementing agencies and organizations. The Blueprints project was developed by the Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence at the University of Colorado–Boulder and is supported by OJJDP. It has evolved into a large-scale prevention initiative, both identifying model programs and providing technical support to help sites choose and implement programs with a high degree of integrity. After reviewing more than 600 violence prevention programs, the Blueprints initiative has identified 11 model programs and 21 promising programs that prevent violence and drug use and treat youth with problem behaviors.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Bomb Threat Response: An Interactive Planning Tool for Schools
    http://www.threatplan.org
    The Bomb Threat CD-ROM is a free interactive planning tool for schools that included staff training presentation and implementation resources. ATF will distribute the CD-ROM to State and local law enforcement and public safety agencies and the Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools will handle distribution to the country's public and private school systems. This web site also has an order form.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Bomb Threats in Schools
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/e07063413.pdf
    This report (82 pp.) (NCJ 208971), a new COPS POP Guide, reviews the factors that increase the risk of bomb threats in schools, identifies a series of questions that might assist departments in analyzing their local problem, and reviews responses to the problem and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice. (COPS)
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Bombs and School Security: Are Your Schools Prepared for Bomb Threats and Bombs?
    http://www.schoolsecurity.org/trends/school-bombs.html
    High-profile school violence cases and other national incidents, along with easy access to formulas for homemade bombs on the Internet, have contributed to the growth of bomb threats, suspicious devices, and homemade bombs in schools, on school grounds, and even on school buses. The increase in these types of incidents was observed by National School Safety and Security Services and incorporated into our training programs over two years prior to the Columbine High School tragedy.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Bullying Contributes To School Shootings, Report Says
    http://www.stateline.org/live/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId=136&languageId=1&contentId=14154
    Metal detectors, student profiles and police officers patrolling school hallways are less likely to prevent school shootings than anti-bullying programs like one conducted in Delaware, a study by the Secret Service and the US Department of Education (DOE) concludes. In three fourths of the cases studied for the "Interim Report on the Prevention of Targeted Violence in School," student shooters reacted violently to being bullied by fellow students, researchers found. By Tiffany Danitz, Staff Writer, Stateline.org, Oct. 25, 2000
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Bullying in Schools
    http://www.popcenter.org/Problems/problem-bullying.htm
    Perhaps more than any other school safety problem, bullying affects students' sense of security. The most effective ways to prevent or lessen bullying require school administrators' commitment and intensive effort; police interested in increasing school safety can use their influence to encourage schools to address the problem. This guide provides police with information about bullying in schools, its extent and its causes, and enables police to steer schools away from common remedies that have proved ineffective elsewhere, and to develop ones that will work. Courtesy of Rana Sampson from the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Bullying in Schools
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/cd_rom/solution_gang_crime/pubs/BullyinginSchools.pdf
    Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), January 2004. There is new concern about school violence, and police have assumed greater responsibility for helping school officials ensure students´ safety. As pressure increases to place officers in schools, police agencies must decide how best to contribute to student safety. Will police presence on campuses most enhance safety? If police cannot or should not be on every campus, can they make other contributions to student safety? What are good approaches and practices?
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Buyer Beware: What to Look For When You Hire a School Security Consultant
    http://web.archive.org/web/20061206060747/http://www.asbj.com/security/contents/0301trump.html
    As an administrator or school board member, could you make these mistakes? You bypass proposals from a number of well-established school safety consultants and accept a "free" security assessment from a security equipment vendor. The vendor has no school experience and recommends only that you purchase $500,000 worth of new security equipment, which it, coincidentally, sells. Unlikely? How about this? Your district gives thousands of dollars to a firm that promises to "certify" your school resource officers but discovers later that the "certification" holds no real standing in the school policing field and that the trainers have done little work with schools. Or this? You hire a "nonprofit" organization to evaluate your district's security needs. Later, you learn -- perhaps through the local newspaper -- that the group is being investigated for soliciting illegal tax-deductible contributions and has filed for bankruptcy. Article by Ken Trump and curtis Lavarello, March 2001. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Campus Public Safety: Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism Protective Measures
    http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/emergencyplan/campussafe.html
    The Office for Domestic Preparedness, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, has published a series of suggestions to guide and inform public safety planning efforts to prevent, deter or effectively respond to a weapons of mass destruction terrorist attack on college campuses. April 2003.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Challenge: Preventing School Violence: Plans Make It Possible: Vol. 15, No. 1
    http://www.thechallenge.org/
    Provides critical information and resources to assist schools in creating safe and healthy environments for young people. This newsletter features articles and information about a different topic in each issue. This issue highlights the Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States, which discusses the implications of what can be done to prevent school violence, particularly with regard to student-on-student violence (the most common type of school violence).
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Checklist of Characteristics of Youth Who Have Caused School-Associated Violent Deaths
    web link
    The National School Safety Center offers the following checklist derived from tracking school-associated violent deaths in the United States from July 1992 to the present. Follow this link to the School Associated Violent Deaths Report. After studying common characteristics of youngsters who have caused such deaths, NSSC has identified the following behaviors, which could indicate a youth’s potential for harming him/herself or others. National School Safety Center.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Classroom Killers? Hallway Hostages?
    How Schools Can Prevent and Manage School Crises (Book Description)
    http://www.schoolsecurity.org/crisis-book.html
    Available in the Main Library Stacks.
    Is it really necessary for educators and communities to brace themselves for an escalating wave of classroom killers and hallway hostages? National school safety and crisis preparedness expert Ken Trump, author of the best selling Practical School Security: Basic Guidelines for Safe and Secure Schools, dispels the myths, misconceptions, and hype surrounding the lessons learned from national school violence crises and shifting security threat trends in this new book. Trump employs over 15 years of school-specific security and crisis management experience to deliver balanced, practical, and cost-effective steps for preventing, and preparing to effectively manage, school crisis incidents.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Color of Discipline:
    Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment
    http://www.indiana.edu/~safeschl/cod.pdf
    Minority disproportionality in school discipline has been a concern for over 25 years. This report reviews the literature concerning disproportional discipline, and tests alternative hypotheses for African American overrepresentation in office referral, suspension and expulsion. (Russell J. Skiba, Robert S. Michael, Abra C. Nardo, and Reece L. Peterson, Safe and Responsive Schools at the Indiana Education Policy Center, June 2000).
    Also cataloged and listed in Magic, our online catalog.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Combating Fear and Restoring Safety in Schools (NCJ 167888)
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/167888.pdf
    This 16-page Bulletin was written by June L. Arnette, Communications Director, and Marjorie C. Walsleben, Communications Specialist, at the National School Safety Center. The Bulletin addresses manifestations of street violence that have encroached on schools: bullying, gangs, the possession and use of weapons, substance abuse, and violence in the community. It also describes strategies and programs that are being implemented by concerned citizens to restore safety and calm to their schools. Contacts for further information are provided.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Conflict Resolution Education: A Guide to Implementing Programs in Schools, Youth-Serving Organizations, and Community and Juvenile Justice Settings
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/cd_rom/solution_gang_crime/pubs/ConflictResolutionEducation.pdf
    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), October 1996. Geared toward educators, juvenile justice practitioners, and others in youth-serving organizations, this guide provides background information on conflict resolution education, an overview of four effective approaches, and guidance on how to initiate and implement conflict resolution education programs.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Crime in Schools and Colleges: A Study of Offenders and Arrestees
    Reported via National Incident-Based Reporting System Data
    http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/schoolviolence/2007/index.html
    Data on crime in schools and colleges and the characteristics of those who commit these offenses can help inform the development of theories and applications to combat such crimes. This study examines characteristics of participants in criminal incidents at schools and colleges from 2000 through 2004 as reported to the FBI by law enforcement agencies.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Crime in the Schools
    Reducing Conflict with Student Problem Solving
    http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/177618.htm
    Teachers, administrators, and students are expressing increasing concerns about the presence of drugs, gangs, weapons and crime on school campuses. This NIJ Research in Brief, Crime in the Schools: Reducing Conflict With Student Problem Solving, discusses an investigation of a student-based problem-solving model for reducing crime in the Nation's schools. Results of this study indicate that a guided group process can reduce school crime and improve the overall school climate. However, most of the conflicts uncovered during this project concerned everyday school interactions rather than gangs, drugs, and armed agitators.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: 2003-04
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2007302
    Presents findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety, information submitted by school principals on the frequency of criminal incidents at school, the use of disciplinary actions, and efforts to prevent and reduce crime at school. From the National Center for Education Statistics.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Crime, Violence, Discipline, And Safety In U.S. Public Schools: Findings From The School Survey On Crime And Safety: 2005-06
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007361.pdf
    Kacey Lee Nolle et al. Presents findings on crime and violence in U.S. public schools, using data from the 2005-06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) which provides information about school crime-related topics from the perspective of the schools. 73pp.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: First Look
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011320.pdf
    Uses data from the 2009-10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) to examine a range of issues dealing with school crime and safety, such as the frequency of school crime and violence, disciplinary actions, and school practices related to the prevention and reduction of crime and safety. Percentages of schools that drill students on emergency plans for natural disasters, hostage situations, and bomb threats are included. U.S. Dept. of Education, Washington, DC , May 2011. Report NO: NCES 2011320. 85p.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Crisis Intervention and Violence Prevention Resources
    http://www.ispaweb.org/Resources/crisis_intervention.aspx
    A compilation of resources from the International School Psychologists Association.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Deadly Lessons - School Shooters : Secret Service Findings
    http://www.icarusplays.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/3-Secret-Service-Findings.pdf
    Preliminary findings from Secret Service study of 41 achool shooters in 37 incidents. Bill Dedman, Chicago Sun Times, Oct. 15, 2000.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Derailed!: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track
    http://www.advancementproject.org/digital-library/publications/derailed-the-schoolhouse-to-jailhouse-track
    On May 14, 2003, Advancement Project released this first-of-its-kind report that looks at how zero-tolerance policies are derailing students from an academic track in schools to a future in the juvenile justice system. According to the report, in the mid 1980s, a spike in juvenile crime rates gave birth to the “superpredator” theory which held that America was under assault by a generation of brutally amoral young people, and that only the abandonment of “soft” educational and rehabilitative approaches, in favor of strict and unrelenting discipline—a zero tolerance approach— could end the plague.
    “In school district after school district, an inflexible and unthinking zero tolerance approach to an exaggerated juvenile crime problem is derailing the educational process,” said Judith Browne, Advancement Project senior attorney. “The educational system is starting to look more like the criminal justice system. Acts once handled by a principal or a parent are now being handled by prosecutors and the police.”
    Also cataloged and listed in our online catalog.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Disaster Preparedness and Response for Schools
    http://www.ncef.org/rl/disaster.cfm
    Information on building or retrofitting schools to withstand natural disasters and terrorism, developing emergency preparedness plans, and using school buildings to shelter community members during emergencies.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Early Warning Signs of Youth Violence: Fact, Fiction, or Fad?
    http://www.schoolsecurity.org/trends/warning-signs.html
    Advice from National School Safety and Security Services.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Early Warning, Timely Response: A Guide to Safe Schools
    http://cecp.air.org/guide/guide.pdf
    A report that provides an overview of research-based practices, including: characteristics of a safe and responsive school; early warning signs; getting help for troubled children; developing a prevention and responsive plan; and dealing with a crisis. The guide was developed by the U.S. Department of Education and Department of Justice.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Emergency Management 101: What Every School District Needs to Know
    http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=28334
    Discusses the four phases of emergency management: prevention-mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery; and how they apply to schools. Also addressed are school emergency plan development considerations; making plans scalable; the standard response actions of evacuation, lockdown, and shelter-in-place; and after-action debriefing. Larry Borland. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Washington, DC , Aug 2009. 46p.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services (ERIC CASS)
    Virtual Library Reading Room
    Bullying in Schools
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030604105546/
    http://ericcass.uncg.edu/virtuallib/bullying/bullyingbook.html

    Still available on the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services (ERIC CASS)
    Virtual Library Reading Room
    School Violence
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030210213848/
    http://ericcass.uncg.edu/virtuallib/violence/violencebook.html

    Still available on the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Evaluating Risk for Targeted Violence in the Schools:
    Comparing Risk Assessment, Threat Assessment, and Other Approaches
    http://www.treas.gov/usss/ntac/ntac_threat_postpress.pdf?SEARCH.X=18\&SEARCH.Y=10
    Marisa Reddy et al. Psychology in the Schools, vol. 38(2), 2001.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Exposure to Violence and Victimization at School
    http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED436603&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED436603
    Daniel J. Flannery. Columbia University Institute for Urban and Minority Education. 1999.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Facts About Violence Among Youth and Violence in Schools
    http://web.archive.org/web/20041012084137/http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/fact/violence.htm
    Daniel J. Flannery, Institute for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Kent State University, and Mark I. Singer, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University. Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, Choices Brief no. 4, 1999. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    FAQs for Schools on Homeland Security
    http://www.michigan.gov/documents/FAQs_school-color_62082_7.pdf
    Prepared by the Michigan State Police, Emergency Management Division.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative:
    http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/preventingattacksreport.pdf
    Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States. U.S. Secret Service and the U.S. Department of Education, May 2002.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Gangs in Schools
    http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/gangs.htm
    Gang culture among young people, in itself, is nothing new. Indeed, youth gangs have been a major part of the urban cultural landscape since at least the1830s, when Charles Dickens described Fagin's pack of young boys roaming the streets of London in Oliver Twist. In the late twentieth century United States, however, gangs have taken on a different character and have moved into areas un-imagined by Dickens. Most significantly, they are spreading from inner cities to smaller communities. Indeed, while gang activity has been stabilizing in urban areas, it has increased significantly elsewhere. At the same time, gangs have become a growing problem in public schools, which historically have been considered "neutral turf." Article by by Gary Burnett, ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, and Garry Walz, ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services.
    Also listed under Gangs
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Governor's Columbine Review Commission Report
    http://www.state.co.us/columbine/
    May 2001.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Guide for Preventing and Responding to School Violence
    http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS121635
    Designed to assist local communities, the guide describes the roles of the school, community, families, law enforcement, and justice system in working together to take effective action to address school violence. Courtesy of the Office of Justice Programs' Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), in coordination with the International Association of Chiefs of Police. This link provides access to the 2nd or 2009 edition.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Gun Violence in Schools
    http://www.abanet.org/dispute/gunres.html
    http://www.abanet.org/gunviol/factsaboutgunviolence/schools.shtml
    Access the ABA's policy, background report, congressional correspondence and facts on gun violence in schools.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Hatred in the Hallways : Violence and Discrimination Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students in U.S. Schools
    http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/uslgbt/toc.htm
    Human Rights Watch, May 2001.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Homeland Security: The Role of Schools in a Post 9/11 Environment
    http://www.schoolsafety.us/free-resources/schools-and-readiness
    "During the past decade, more than 300 school-associated violent deaths occurred on or near school campuses in America. School safety is a major issue in communities across the country, particularly now in those areas that are near strategically rich terrorist targets. Since 9/11, many schools have developed much closer partnerships with local law enforcement officials and with mental health professionals. This is particularly true as these school safety partners work with school officials to evaluate the risk of rumors and threats that may emerge on the school campus and as they deal with the aftermath of violence, terrorism and national tragedies such as Columbia Space Shuttle's fatal disaster. The importance of contingency planning cannot be overstated. On 9/11, many elementary schoolchildren were lining up outside their classrooms, prepared to enter when the first plane struck the North Tower, and students at Stuyvesant High School had a clear view of the Tower disasters. Evacuation plans played a key role when the tragedy struck. School officials in the area quickly learned that having more than one plan for evacuation is critical in the event of a crisis. Many of the strategies that would be used in a natural disaster, such as an earthquake or tornado, have significant application for managing the effects of a terrorist attack involving explosions or chemical, biological, or radiological warfare. While dealing with a human-caused terrorist attack is more unsettling for many than dealing with a natural disaster, the key for both is to be prepared." National School Safety Center.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    How Can We Prevent Violence in Our Schools
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030402004316/
    http://www.eric.ed.gov/resources/parent/prevent.html

    Despite heightened public attention following a surge in multiple homicides in schools, overall school crime rates are declining, according to the new 1999 Annual Report on School Safety (U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice, 1999). This brochure offers an overview of current school-safety and violence-prevention issues and recommends organizations and resources that can provide additional information. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    How To Handle Bomb Threats and Suspicious Devices
    http://www.schoolsecurity.org/trends/SP&MBombArticle1999.pdf
    Article by Ken Trump appearing School Planning & Management magazine, February 1999.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    I Can't Keep Them Safe
    http://web.archive.org/web/20040417074220/http://www.asbj.com/security/contents/0399busse.html
    You probably don't remember the shooting in Le Sueur, Minn. It's been overshadowed by other small-town schools that experienced shootings during the 1997-98 school year: West Paducah, Ky.; Pearl, Miss.; Jonesboro, Ark.; and Springfield, Ore. The difference in Le Sueur is that no one died. I write this article not to say that the other schools did something wrong and Le Sueur-Henderson did everything right. But I do think our experience shows how gaining students' trust and sharing information can mean, literally, the difference between life and death. Article by Nancy Busse appearing in American School Board Journal, March 1999. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    In the Spotlight: School Safety
    http://www.ncjrs.gov/spotlight/school_safety/Summary.html
    "In the Spotlight" is a new bi-monthly feature that focuses on prevalent issues in crime, public safety, and drug policy. This issue provides information about bullying, conflict resolution, security planning and other key issues. Also provides news about facts and figures, grants and funding, legislation, publications, and training and technical assistance programs. From The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS).
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1998
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=98251
    This report, the first in a series of annual reports on school crime and safety from the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, presents the latest available data on school crime and student safety. The report provides a profile of school crime and safety in the United States and describes the characteristics of the victims of these crimes. It is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on different aspects of school crime and safety. There are five sections to the report:

  • Nonfatal Student Victimization--Student Reports;
  • Violence and Crime at School--Public School Principal/Disciplinarian Reports;
  • Violent Deaths at School;
  • Nonfatal Teacher Victimization at School--Teacher Reports; and
  • School Environment.
    Each section contains a set of indicators that, taken as a whole, describe a distinct aspect of school crime and safety.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1999
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=1999057
    Analyzes national data from several sources on crimes committed in schools and to and from schools. In addition, "data for crime away from school are also presented to place school crime in the context of crime in the larger society." According to the NCES, this report represents the most current detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools. Source: Scout Report, October 1, 1999.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2000
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2001017
    This report presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from an array of sources that include: the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-98); the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (1989, 1995 and 1999); the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (1993, 1995, and 1997); and, the School and Staffing Survey (1993-94). A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, the report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. Data for crime away from school are also presented to place school crime in the context of crime in the larger society. The report provides the most current detailed statistical information to inform the Nation on the nature of crime in schools.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2001
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2002113
    NCJ190075. Between 1992 and 1999, violent victimization rates at schools generally declined from 48 crimes per 1,000 students ages 12 through 18 to 33 per 1,000 students. (BJS) 191pp.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2002
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003009.pdf
    Examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. A collaborative report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center for Education Statistics, it presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population, using a comprehensive array of sources. November 2002. NCJ 196753.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2003
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2004004
    Presents data on crime at school from the perspectives of students, teachers, principals, and the general population. A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Center for Education Statistics, the report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It provides the most current detailed statistical information to inform the Nation on the nature of crime in schools.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2004
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2005002
    A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Center for Education Statistics, this annual report examines crime occurring in school as well as on the way to and from school. It provides the most current detailed statistical information to inform the Nation on the nature of crime in schools.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2005
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2006001
    Uses a variety of federal data sources to report annually on crime in school or on the way to and from school. Finds that violence is still widespread but has declined since 1992 from 48 violent victimizations to 28 in 2003. From the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Justice Statistics.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2006
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2007003
    Annual report with data on crimes occurring at school or on the way to or from school. From the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Justice Statistics.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2007
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2008021
    From July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2006, there were 35 school-associated violent deaths in elementary and secondary schools in the United States.
    In 2005-06, 78 percent of schools experienced one or more violent incidents of crime, 17 percent experienced one or more serious violent incidents, 46 percent experienced one or more thefts, and 68 percent experienced another type of crime.
    In 2005, approximately 6 percent of students ages 12-18 reported that they avoided school activities or one or more places in school because they thought someone might attack or harm them.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2008
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009022
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2009
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2010012
    Schools should be safe havens where young people can learn and prosper, and anything less than that is unacceptable," Attorney General Eric Holder and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan declared, announcing the release of the report. The report draws on federally funded studies to provide detailed statistical information on the nature of crime in schools and school environments and responses to violence and crime at school.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2010
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2011002
    Our nation's schools should be safe havens for teaching and learning, free of crime and violence. Any instance of crime or violence at school not only affects the individuals involved, but also may disrupt the educational process and affect bystanders, the school itself, and the surrounding community (Henry 2000)....Ensuring safer schools requires establishing good indicators of the current state of school crime and safety across the nation and regularly updating and monitoring these indicators. This is the aim of Indicators of School Crime and Safety....This report is the thirteenth in a series of annual publications produced jointly by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Institute of Education Sciences (IES), in the U.S. Department of Education, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) in the U.S. Department of Justice. This report presents the most recent data available on school crime and student safety. The indicators in this report are based on information drawn from a variety of data sources, including national surveys of students, teachers, and principals. Sources include results from a study of violent deaths in schools, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the National Crime Victimization Survey and School Crime Supplement to the survey, sponsored by the BJS and NCES, respectively; the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and the Schools and Staffing Survey and School Survey on Crime and Safety, both sponsored by NCES. The most recent data collection for each indicator varied by survey, from 2007 to 2009. Each data source has an independent sample design, data collection method, and questionnaire design, or is the result of a universe data collection. All comparisons described in this report are statistically significant at the .05 level. Additional information about methodology and the datasets analyzed in this report may be found in appendix A....This report covers topics such as victimization, teacher injury, bullying, school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, and student perceptions of personal safety at school. Indicators of crime and safety are compared across different population subgroups and over time. Data on crimes that occur away from school are offered as a point of comparison where available.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2011
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012002
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Keep Schools Safe
    http://www.keepschoolssafe.org/
    On September 2, 1998, the National Association of Attorneys General and the National School Boards Association joined together to address the escalating problem of youth violence occurring across our country. Our Youth Violence and School Safety Initiative is dedicated to promoting a mutual response to violent instances occurring in our communities and schools.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Keeping Children Safe in School: A Resource for States
    http://web.archive.org/web/20000819073021/
    www.childrensdefense.org/publications/schoolviolence.pdf

    This report by the Children's Defense Fund is designed to give you the latest facts on school violence and some useful information on how to make schools in your community safer. From conflict-resolution to after-school programs, this guide will provide you with the tools to learn about these successful school violence prevention initiatives. This handy guide provides you with contact names, numbers, and web sites of key organizations where you can obtain helpful fact sheets, resource material, and program information. Still available courtesy of the Internet Archives.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Keeping the Peace: What You Should Know About Staffing A School Security Department
    http://web.archive.org/web/20061019153052/http://www.asbj.com/security/contents/0398trump.html
    Advice from Ken Trump, President of National School Safety and Security Services, March 1998. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Keys to Safer Schools . com
    http://www.keystosaferschools.com/
    If you are not sure whether your school has done all it can to prevent or to be prepared for violent events, contact Keys To Safer Schools.com today. Web pages also includes articles for further reading.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Kids These Days: What Americans Really Think About the Younger Generation
    http://www.publicagenda.org/reports/kids-these-days-99
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    The Killer at Thurston High
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kinkel/
    A Frontline documentary.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Lessons Learned from the Beslan (Russia) School Attack
    http://www.asisonline.org/newsroom/beslan.pdf
    Advisory from the U.S. Department of Education, Oct. 6, 2004.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Making Schools Safe
    http://web.archive.org/web/20041013023235/
    http://www.nga.org/center/divisions/1,1188,C_ISSUE_BRIEF%5eD_934,00.html

    This Issue Brief identifies issues, strategies, and resources related to combating school violence. It is based on an executive policy forum series cosponsored by the National Governors Association and the National Institute of Justice. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Managing Bomb Threats for School Administrators
    http://www.aaets.org/arts/art99.htm
    As our nation struggles to address youth violence, educators are faced with very challenging security threats. Bombs are one of several new crime trends. Administrators are asking for bottom line answers to questions like "do we evacuate?" and "who searches?" What is an acceptable search? Regrettably, there is very little reliable information to assist in determining the difference between a hoax and the real thing. This document is designed to assist school administrators as they face these life-threatening challenges. Marie Courtney Milkovich. The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Michigan School Safety Practices Report
    http://magic.msu.edu/record=b4877620a
    The Michigan Center on Educational Performance & Information (CEPI) has released its first annual Public School Safety Practices Report, 2001-2002. The report provides data on assaults, arsons, bomb threats, suicides and expulsions in Michigan. Statewide and district data is relatively easy to read. However, school building-level data is only available in Excel format and some sorting and highlighting are required to display individual buildings.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    No Safe Havens: Are schools vulnerable to terrorism?
    A New National Survey Raises Troubling Questions
    http://web.archive.org/web/20070202084433/http://www.asbj.com/security/contents/0303trump.html
    Terrorist attacks, anthrax scares, serial sniper shootings, and other incidents of extreme violence are changing the landscape of school safety and raising challenging questions. When national leaders issue warnings of terrorist threats, what steps should school officials take? Does allowing students to carry cell phones in school improve or detract from school safety? Should international field trips and student tours to national monuments be discontinued? Article by Kenneth S. Trump and Curtis Lavarello appearing in American School Board Journal, March 2003. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Nuts and Bolts of Implementing School Safety Programs
    http://www.vera.org/download?file=223/nutsandbolts.pdf
    A report by Melorra Sochet and Catherine Berryman for the Vera Institute of Justice. The report is intended to help teachers, principals, and school administrators find the right school safety programs. The manual identifies programs from around the country and describes the resources needed to implement each program. 2000.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Opportunities Suspended:
    The Devastating Consequences of Zero-Tolerance and School Discipline
    http://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/discipline/opport_suspended.php
    In the aftermath of a number of high profile, extremely violent incidents at public schools, many state and local education entities have adopted the same harsh and mandatory, "take-no-prisoners" approach to discipline currently being used in this country’s criminal justice system. Opportunities Suspended: The Devastating Consequences of Zero Tolerance and School Discipline, is the culmination of the shared efforts of The Civil Rights Project (CRP) at Harvard University and the Advancement Project (AP). By consulting with attorneys, psychiatrists, academians, educators, and children’s advocates, CRP and AP embarked upon a multi-disciplined approach to review this subject matter. This is the first comprehensive national report to scrutinize the impact that the brutally strict Zero Tolerance approach to discipline, currently being used in public schools, is having on American children. The report illustrates that Zero Tolerance is unfair, is contrary to the developmental needs of children, denies children educational opportunities, and often results in the criminalization of children. The report was released in June 2000.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    An Overview of Strategies to Reduce School Violence
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030609024223/
    http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/digest/dig115.asp

    A digest on school violence available through the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    A Practical Guide for Crisis Response in Our Schools [Book]
    http://magic.msu.edu:80/record=b3972640a
    School crisis response can no longer be delegated solely to members of a School Crisis Response Team. Today, crisis management is the responsibility of all educators. This dramatically expanded publication provides a structure and process for effectively managing the wide spectrum of school-based crises. It is an invaluable resource in preparation for, and during, actual crisis situations and continues to serve as a meaningful standard for our nation's schools.
    Book available in the MSU Main Library Stacks.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities
    http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/emergencyplan/crisisplanning.pdf
    http://www.safetyzone.org/pdfs/crisisplanning.pdf
    Intended to give schools, districts, and communities the critical concepts and components of good crisis planning, stimulate thinking about the crisis preparedness process, and provide examples of promising practices. This guide is designed to help readers navigate the process of reviewing and revising school and district crisis plans. This guide includes six sections enclosed in a folder: 1) Introduction; 2) Mitigation/Prevention; 3) Preparedness; 4) Response; 5) Recovery, and 6) Closer Looks. May 2003. 146pp.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Preventing School Shootings
    http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/jr000248c.pdf
    There is no one reason why school shootings occur, and no one type of student who becomes a shooter. This article dispels the myths and stereotypes about school shooters. Children who attack can be any age and from any ethnic group, race, or family situation. Contrary to assumptions that some of our youth "just snap" -- they don't. They plan. A Summary of a U.S. Secret Service Safe School Initiative Report (report summary), National Institute of Justice Journal, 2002.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Preventing School Violence : A Plan for Safe and Engaging Schools
    http://www.nasponline.org/resources/principals/Student%20Counseling%20Violence%20Prevention.pdf
    Schools are in a unique position to identify violent behavior among students early and to implement prevention strategies that affect the entire community. This column is the first in a three-part series on preventing school violence.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Preventing School Violence : a Practical Guide to Comprehensive Planning
    http://www.indiana.edu/~safeschl/psv.pdf
    Reviews of what we know about school violence prevention, including a review of current data on the prevalence of school violence and strategies that have been shown to be successful in improving school climate and reducing school violence and disruption. Russell Skiba, ... [et al] [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana Education Policy Center, [2000?].
    Also cataloged and listed in Magic, our online Catalog.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Preventing School Violence: Plans Make it Possible
    http://www.thechallenge.org/15_1_prevent_violence.html
    Despite the fact that schools remain one of the safest places for our children, recent tragic school events, such as the shootings at Virginia Tech, Platte Canyon High School, and the Amish schoolhouse have raised the level of anxiety about the safety of our students at school.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Preventing Youth Violence in Urban Schools: An Essay Collection
    http://web.archive.org/web/20021003003744/
    http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/monographs/uds107_index.html

    Wendy Schwartz, March 1996.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks
    http://www.fema.gov/library/file?type=publishedFile&file=fema428_cover_toc.pdf&fileid=3bd267b0-659c-11db-8645-000bdba87d5b
    The purpose of this FEMA primer is to provide the design community and school administrators with the basic principles and techniques to make a school that is safe from terrorist attacks. FEMA 428 includes information on how to conduct a threat/ risk assessment, prepare site layout and building design, and create school safety plans. It also includes a brief discussion on blast theory and CBR measures that can be taken to mitigate school vulnerabilities, as well as a standalone description of the concept of safe rooms within schools that will resist CBR and blast threats. FEMA. December 2003.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Promoting Safety in Schools: International Experience and Action
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/186937.pdf
    NCJ 186937 describes the issues of school violence and school safety as concerns seen throughout the world. The document addresses the goals of implementing school safety and having plans to prevent crises and deal with the ones that arise. (BJA) 68pp.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Protecting Students from Harassment and Hate Crimes:
    A Guide for Schools, September, 1999
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030213014213/
    http://www.ed.gov/pubs/Harassment/index.html

    Abstract: Provides information to help schools and school districts protect students from harassment and hate crimes. This Guide defines and describes harassment and hate crimes, contains information about applicable laws, details specific positive steps that schools can take to prevent and respond to harassment, includes sample policies and procedures used by school districts in the United States, and identifies many of the resource materials available to assist schools. This version of the document includes recent court decisions.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Reports May Soft-Pedal Extent of School Violence
    http://www.stateline.org/live/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId=136&languageId=1&contentId=15470
    Just how safe are public schools? State and federal reports may not help parents figure that out. Article by Pamela M. Prah, Stateline.org, Nov. 11, 2003.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Safeguarding Our Children: An Action Guide:
    Implementing Early Warning, Timely Response
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030403053525/
    http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Products/ActionGuide/Action_Guide.pdf

    Helps schools develop and carry out a violence prevention and response plan that can be customized to fit each school's particular strengths. This guide presents strategies that schools have used successfully to create and implement violence prevention plans; provides examples of sound practices and programs; and offers suggestions on recognizing, reporting, and using early warning signs effectively. Produced by the Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice of the American Institutes for Research, and the National Association for School Psychologists under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Eduction, Office of Speical Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of Special Education Programs. K. Dwyer and D. Osher. April 2002. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School and Community Interventions to Prevent Serious and Violent Offending
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/177624.pdf
    Although youth who commit serious violent crimes are small in number, they account for a disproportionate amount of juvenile crime. How then can we best intervene with this difficult—even dangerous—population?
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Crisis Guide. Help and Healing in a Time of Crisis
    http://crisisguide.neahin.org/crisisguide/
    This web-based guide and toolkit were developed to help schools respond to both human and natural disasters. Included are tips, resources, ideas, and examples. The kit is divided into four sections that discuss: 1) being prepared before a crisis, 2) being responsive during a crisis, 3) being diligent in moving beyond crisis, and 4) hands-on assistance tools for educators. National Education Association (NEA) and the National Education Association Health Information Network (NEA HIN), 2011.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Critical Incident Planning: An Internet Resource Directory
    http://www.justnet.org/Pages/SchoolCriticalIncidentPlanning.aspx
    Events in recent years have shown that schools are not immune from violent critical incidents. The Internet resources gathered here are intended to assist law enforcement and school personnel with preparation, response, and resolution in regards to a school critical incident.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School House Hype: School Shootings and the Real Risks Kids Face in America
    http://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/jpi/schoolhouse.pdf
    Article by Elizabeth Donohue, Vincent Schiraldi, and Jason Ziedenberg, National Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School House Hype: Two Years Later
    http://www.cjcj.org/files/schoolhouse.pdf
    National Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. April 2000.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Resource Officer Training Program
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/fs200105.pdf
    OJJDP Fact Sheet, No. 5, March 2001
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Resource Officers, School Police, & School Security Officers
    http://www.schoolsecurity.org/resources/school-resource-officers.html
    Although the placement of law enforcement officers in schools, typically known as School Resource Officers (SROs), has grown tremendously over the past decade, the move to do so appears to have increased dramatically following the school shootings of the late 1990s. Does the presence of police in schools create a prison-like environment? Absolutely not! Advice from National School Safety and Security Services.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Safety : In the Spotlight
    http://www.ncjrs.gov/spotlight/school_safety/Summary.html
    Definitions of the term "school violence" range from very limited—for example, relating only to the use of guns in school—to very extensive, including all youth misconduct and the many community and societal influences on such behavior (Preventing School Violence: Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation-Enhancing Policy and Practice Through Research, National Institute of Justice, 2000).
    School-based violence prevention efforts can take many forms. Such efforts include adopting zero tolerance policies, requiring students to wear uniforms, employing surveillance cameras and metal detectors, and stationing law enforcement and mental health personnel in the schools (Indicators of School Crime and Safety 2002, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2002)[1].
    A compilation of resources.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective
    http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/school-shooter
    Details warning signs in a student's personality, family, school, and social life that could indicate a propensity towards violence. It defines what a threat is and advises school and law enforcement officials on what to do if they suspect someone is at risk for committing a violent act. Courtesy of the FBI.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Vandalism and Break-Ins
    http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/SchoolVandalismBreakIns.pdf
    (80 pp.) (NCJ 210918), a new COPS POP Guide, describes the problem and reviews the risk factors of school vandalism and break-ins and discusses the associated problems of school burglaries and arson. It then identifies a series of questions to help analyze a local problem and reviews responses to the problem. From the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services of the Justice Department (COPS).
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Violence entry from Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment, Vol. 2, 2002
    http://law.jrank.org/pages/12103/School-Violence.html
    In addition to the general commentary, includes sections on: The History Of School Discipline, School Shootings, Bullying, Shootings Become More Frequent, The Spring Of 1998, Columbine And Beyond, Causes Of School Violence, Effects Of School Violence, and Prevention.

    School Violence and No Child Left Behind : Best Practices To Keep Kids Safe
    http://www.reason.org/ps330.pdf
    Lisa Snell. Reason Policy Study 330, January 2005.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Violence (Special Issue)
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/188158.pdf
    Juvenile Justice, Vol. 8, No. 1, June 2001, presents three articles that examine the extent and nature of school violence and review promising approaches to creating safe schools and resolving conflicts peacefully; the journal also describes other resources related to these issues..
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    School Violence: What is Being Done to Combat School Violence? What Should Be Done?
    http://magic.msu.edu:80/record=b4572213a
    U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources. Committee Hearing 106-111, May 20, 1999.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    States Experiment with Schoolhouse Safety
    http://www.stateline.org/live/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId=136&languageId=1&contentId=13995
    Despite the fact that the violent loss of life at American high schools declined as the 1990s came to a close, the recurrence of jarring multiple shootings has forced policy makers to tackle an assignment that none of them ever wanted: how best to ensure student safety and prevent future massacres. Prior to the attack at Colorado’s Columbine High School in April 1999, mass shootings like those in Paducah, Ky., and Jonesboro, Ark., prompted bursts of legislative activity on the issue. Columbine brought these concerns to the national level. Analysts say that, in the year since, state lawmakers have climbed a steep learning curve toward comprehensive, preventive solutions already experimented with in states like California, Kentucky and North Carolina. Tiffany Danitz and John Nagy, Staff Writers, stateline.org, April 12, 2000.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Ten Steps to Safer Schools
    http://web.archive.org/web/20061108110412/http://www.asbj.com/security/contents/0398stephens.html
    Security for students and staff begins with planning. Article by Ronald D. Stephens appearing in American School Board Journal, March 1998. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates
    http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/threatassessmentguide.pdf
    http://www.safetyzone.org/pdfs/ssi_threat_assessment.pdf
    This report outlines a process for identifying, assessing, and managing students who may pose a threat of targeted violence in schools. This guide is intended for use by school personnel, law enforcement officials, and others with protective responsibilities in our nation's schools. It includes suggestions for developing a threat assessment team within a school or school district, steps to take when a threat or other information of concern comes to light, consideration about when to involve law enforcement personnel, issues of information sharing, and ideas for creating safe school climates. Robert A. Fein et al. U.S. Secret Service and US Department of Education. May 2002. 90pp.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    The Three Rs and Emergency Preparedness: Contingency Planning for our Schools
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030414023458/
    http://www.cmsinc.freeservers.com/thethreersandemergencypreparedness.pdf

    Article by Edward V. Badolato, President of Contingency Management Services, Inc. December 1999. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Toward Safe and Orderly Schools:
    The National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools
    https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/205005.pdf
    This NIJ Research in Brief presents findings from a national survey of elementary, middle, and secondary schools. Problem behavior is widespread and most common in urban areas and middle schools. Schools have adopted a surprisingly large and diverse array of activities, curricular programs, and security measures, but many of these are unproven or poorly implemented. Key characteristics of successful programs and how schools can improve program quality and implementation are identified. Nov. 2004. 20pp. (NCJ 205005)
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Violence Among Middle School and High School Students: Analysis and Implications for Prevention
    http://www.nij.gov/pubs-sum/166363.htm
    This NIJ Research in Brief presents the results of a study examining violent incidents among at-risk middle and high school students. The study focused not only on the types and frequency of these incidents but also on their dynamics--the locations, the "opening moves," the relationship between disputants, the goals and justifications of the aggressor, the role of third parties, and other factors.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Violence and Discipline Problems in U.S. Public Schools : 1996-97 (NCES 98030)
    http://web.archive.org/web/20030401081912/
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/violence/

    This report presents findings from the Principal/School Disciplinarian Survey on School Violence commissioned by NCES to obtain current data on school violence and other discipline issues in our nation's public elementary and secondary schools. The survey requested information about 1) the actual number of specific crimes that had occurred at school during the 1996-97 academic year; 2) principals' perceptions about the seriousness of a variety of discipline issues at their schools; 3) the types of disciplinary actions schools took against students for some serious violations; and 4) the kinds of security measures and violence prevention programs that were in place in public schools. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Virginia Model for Student Threat Assessment
    web link
    "Each time there is a highly publicized school shooting, there is widespread concern that school violence is rampant in the United States. For example, after the 1999 Columbine shooting, a Gallup poll found that two-thirds of Americans believed that a similar incident could happen at schools in their community. Zero tolerance policies were greatly expanded nationwide so that students were expelled for seemingly minor offenses such as bringing a plastic knife to school, pointing a finger like a gun, or shooting a paper clip with a rubber band (Cornell, 2006). After several high profile shootings in the fall of 2006, there were renewed recommendations to arm teachers with guns (Associated Press, 2006b) and even a call to issue Kevlar-coated textbooks to students for use as bullet shields (Associated Press, 2006a). A Fort Worth suburban school division went so far as to hire a former military officer to train students to attack and subdue an armed gunman (Dallas Morning News, 2006). Rather than rely on unrealistically heroic measures, it may be more useful to consider less dramatic but more practical prevention approaches that can be implemented well before a gunman appears on school property. Strategies to maintain school safety must be based on a factual assessment of the risk of violent crime and objective evidence of what prevention methods are effective."
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Young Guns: Do Your School Employees Know What to Do When a Kid Brings a Gun to School?
    http://web.archive.org/web/20040417074320/http://www.asbj.com/security/contents/0496gavin.html
    Word reaches you that a student has brought a gun to school. Is confronting the student a job for a school administrator or for the police? If you think school employees can handle a situation like this on their own, you'd better think again. Are you prepared to tell a slain student's parents their child died because you thought you didn't need professional assistance to handle a student with a gun? Article by Thomas A. Gavin, April 1996. Still available thanks to the Internet Archive.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Zero Tolerance
    http://www.schoolsecurity.org/trends/zero_tolerance.html
    National School Safety and Security Services receives a number of inquiries about our position on the concept of zero tolerance discipline in schools. We share below our thoughts and positions on what some describe as zero tolerance policies or zero tolerance procedures. "Zero tolerance" has been a political buzzword for so many years now that it has more meaning in the minds of academicians and politicians than it does in day-to-day practice by school administrators. In well over 20 years of school safety experience with school officials in 45 states, we have consistently found the vast majority of school administrators to strive for firm, fair, and consistent discipline applied with good common sense. Unfortunately, there are anecdotal incidents from time to time which lack the latter part of the equation: The common sense. It is these cases that get labeled as "zero tolerance" by critics who falsely try to create a perception that there is some type of mass conspiracy by educators to unfairly discipline children. Contrary to suggestions by the media, politicians, and Ivory-Tower theorists, the real problem is therefore the absence of common sense, not the presence of intentionally harsh actions committed to fuel a master nationwide conspiracy plan called “zero tolerance.”
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence: an Analysis of School Disciplinary Practice
    http://www.indiana.edu/~safeschl/ztze.pdf
    Explores the controversies that appear to be inherent in the use of a zero tolerance disciplinary approach in schools and explores the evidence concerning the effectiveness of zero tolerance in contributing toward school safety or reduced student disruption. Russell J. Skiba. [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana Education Policy Center, 2000.
    Also cataloged and listed in Magic, our online catalog.
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

    Zero Tolerance, Zero Sense (American Bar Journal)
    In the wake of a spate of shootings, school boards are adopting strict policies to crack down on trouble-making students. As a result, good kids, whose behavior would have merited a trip to the principal's office in the past, are being suspended, kicked out of school or even prosecuted. Critics say schools should be innovative rather than inflexible in doling out punishment An article by Margaret Graham Tebo appearing in ABA Journal, April 2000, p.40+
    MSU faculty, staff, and students with a pilot id and password can access this article electronically. It is also available in the MSU Library Periodical Reading Room (and eventually the Main Library Stacks).
    (Last checked 03/19/12)

     

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