Policy | U.S Human Cloning Laws and Policy
| Advocacy Groups-US | U.K.Human
Cloning Laws and Policy
International Human Cloning Laws and Policy
Animal Cloning Laws and Policy
Regulation of animal cloning in the United States is
under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. Their Center
for Veterinary Medicine has a page about Cloning
of Food-Producing Animals.
- The International Embryo Transfer Society has issued a position
statement in favor of animal cloning research. (Most scientific
organizations have focused their position statements regarding human
cloning (see below), presuming already their support for animal cloning)
- The Humane Society of the United States has issued a press
release condemming the cloning of cats or other pets.
Human Cloning Laws and
The possibility of human cloning has been the source
of debates by the governments of many countries and international organizations.
Policies and laws are currently being formulated in different countries
and even in different states of the United States. Statements of the
U.S., U.K. and Canadian governments and many other publications that
explain the moral, ethical and legal issues of human cloning that are
The Food and
Drug Administration has regulatory jurisdiction over clinical research
using cloning technology in humans, and the National Institutes of Health
Human Embryo Research Panel has developed a science
brief on human cloning with a summary of both sides of the legislative
debate is provided by the American Association for the Advancement of
Policies on Cloning: A summary of attempts at cloning legislation
in the United States Congress is provided by the Center for Genetics and
Society. An analysis of why federal laws have not yet been passed in the
United States is included.
Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2007 (H.R. 2560) was introduced
on June 5, 2007 and defeated in the House. Republicans called it a "phony
ban" that does not prohibit cloning but only the implanation
of a clone into a woman.
Cloning Prohibition Act of 2003 (H.R.234) passed the House of Representatives
on 27 Feb, 2003 but was not acted upon by the Senate. This bill is almost
identical to the Human
Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001 (H.R. 2505) which was passed in
the House on 31 July, 2001 but which also was not acted upon by the
See a Washington
Post article about the passage of the 2001 House bill. President Bush's views were made known through his
to the U.N. in September 2002.
Raised by Human Cloning Research Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations
28 March, 2001.
Prepared testimony by various experts: research scientists, medical
doctors, bioethics specialists.
of Thomas H. Murray, Ph.D., Commissioner, National Bioethics Advisory
Commission, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations,
United States House of Representatives, March 28, 2001.
The National Bioethics
Advisory Committee on June 9, 1997 submitted a full
report (and executive summary) on cloning human beings including several commissioned papers
by various experts and addressing scientific, religious, legal, and ethical
considerations. This committee was dissolved in October, 2000, and President
George W. Bush replaced it by The President's
Council on Bioethics which has released its first publication in July
Cloning and Human Dignity: An Ethical Inquiry.
Because the federal government so far has not legislated comprehensive laws regarding human biotechnologies, various states have passed their own laws.
The National Conference on State Legislatures has a page which details
Human Cloning Laws.
The Center for Genetics and Society also has a page on State
Policies for human cloning.
Advocacy Groups: American organizations advocating
public policy on human cloning
- The American Medical Association presents information on human cloning, their position on cloning to produce children versus their position on cloning for biomedical research, and a Report of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs
of the American Medical Association
from June 1999.
- The Coalition for Advancement
of Medical Research focuses its advocacy on "Ensuring that
somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), also known as therapeutic cloning,
remains a legal and viable form of scientific research, and opposing
any effort that would allow reproductive cloning". A page lists
the position statements
of all its member organizations such as the American Diabetes Association,
American Medical Association, National Health Council, Society for Women's
Health Research, several research universities, and others.
- The American Society for Cell Biology has a public
policy page on stem cells and cloning. Their Position
Paper on Cloning advocates somatic cell nuclear transfer or therapeutic
- The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
(FASEB) has an Office of Public Affairs portion of their Web site, showing
Cells and SCNT (Stem Cell Nuclear Transfer) as one of their public
- The Society for Developmental Biology has issued a position
statement supporting a voluntary moratorium on cloning human beings
(for reproduction). This is supported by the Society for the Study of
- The Association for Reproductive Health Professionals has issued
statement on both reproductive and therapeutic human cloning.
- The Americans to Ban
Cloning Coalition is a group of concerned Americans and U.S. based
organizations that promote a global, comprehensive ban on human cloning.
- The Clone Rights United Front
is a pro-human-cloning activist site founded by Randolfe Wicker, a proponent
of cloning humans for reproductive purposes. He has testified before
Congress and made several appearances in support of his cause.
UK politicians have given the go-ahead to allow cloning of human embryos
for therapeutic (to develop stem cells to regenerate tissues) but not
for reproductive purposes. See BBC
news story and Q&A
about therapeutic human cloning.
Search the Department of Health Web
site for more press releases on U.K. cloning policy.
Advocacy Groups: U.K. organizations advocating public policy on
The Research Defense Society has a hot
topics--animal cloning page to provide information for the public
for debate and discussion.
The United Nations after two years of debate has voted in March
2005 to approve a non-binding global ban on all human cloning. See BBC
news story. The U.S. and many Catholic countries voted in favor, while
the U.K. voted against.
Protocol to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity
of the Human Being with Regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine,
on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings from the Council of
Europe, this treaty became open for signature on 12 January 1998.
It entered into force on 3 March 2001 with at least 5 ratifications including
4 member states.
The World Health Organization has put together a list of a dozen
questions and answers
about cloning and includes their position statements from 1998 and